Modern History :: Andhra Pradesh Andhra Prasesh :
The legacy of Kammas in the modern history of Andhra Pradesh: Their embrace of education. Among the non-Brahmin communities, Kammas were one of the first to take to education in large numbers. Over a period of 10 years, in Guntur District alone, 130 High schools were established by their initiative. Zamindars of Challapalli and Kapilewarapuram founded many schools and libraries. Historically, Kammas have been one of the wealthy communities in Andhra Pradesh; in the recent past, their pace of increase in wealth only accelerated due to their success in business, farming, arts and movie industry, education, medicine, engineering, and high technology. Kammas have a progressive social outlook and work hard at anything they take up. They were adept farmers and as a consequence of the changes that affected the economic landscape of rural India down the centuries, they became prosperous. Kammas gradually diversified into other specialties such as films, media, academia, medicine, business, real estate, industries etc. Even though they fall less in number to the Brahmin Social Reformers, Poets, famous Politicians in whole of Andhra history, they have gained good inroads in recent past. They have an enterprising and diligent nature. Kammas can claim credit for introducing modern agricultural techniques in the state. Today, some of the most efficient professional institutions in the state are run by the Kammas. They are generally found in roles ranging from large scale industries to small scale businesses. One admirable characteristic about them is their recognition and belief in the dignity of labor, and are not above lending a hand to hired help and doing some field work themselves in agriculture if they see a need, which is generally considered something to be avoided in India by the upper castes. Many Kammas in villages are not only peasants but are landlords as well.Zamindaris :
Muktyala Naer Jaggayyapet/Krishna District/Andhra Pradesh (Vasireddy clan)
Amaravati Guntur District/Andhra Pradesh (Vasireddy clan)
Challapalli Krishna District/Andhra Pradesh (Yarlagadda clan).
Undrajavaram Near Tanuku/West Godavari/Andhra Pradesh (Mullapudi clan)
Kapileswarapuram East Godavari/Andhra Pradesh (Bulusu clan)
Rangapuram Near Gudivada/Krishna district/Andhra Pradesh (Adusumalli clan)
Nayakarpatti near Madurai/Tamilnadu (Pemmasani clan)
Kuruvikulam Estate - Tamilnadu (Pemmasani clan)
Seevalpatti Estate (Bellam clan)
ilayarasanandal Estate (Ravella clan)
Kamma population in Andhra Pradesh is nearly 4.8% of the toal population (i.e) around 40 lakhs. Kammas are mainly concentrated in South Costal A.P and two Rayalaseema Districts. In Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Khammam, Ananthapur and Chittor Districts, and Kamma population is more when compare to other Districts. Kammas stood second in the districts W.Godavari, E.Godavari, Nellore. Kammas are also concentrated in some parts of Nizamabad, Nalgonda, Warangal, Kurnool, Hyderabad and Vizag Districts, in the remaining Districts Kammas are very less in count.
Kamma population is more in villages and small towns when compare to Cities and District head quarters. The main reason for this is Kammas are basically agriculturists, their main accoupation is agriculture.15% of the total agriculture land in A.P is owned or leased by Kammas.
ANCIENT KAMMA HISTORY
Ancient Kamma History
There are many theories about the origins of the word "Kamma" and the social group known as Kammas but none is conclusive. One theory is that the people who lived in the Krishna river valley, where Buddhism prevailed, got the name from Theravada Buddhist concept of Kamma (Pali) or Karma (Sanskrit). This region was once known as Kammarashtram / Kammarattam / Kammanadu, which was under the control of Pallavas, Eastern Chalukyas and Telugu Cholas. Inscriptions mentioning Kammanadu are available since 3rd century A.D. Kambhoja/Pallava Origin :Some historians opined that the name Kamma is probably derived from Kambhoja, an ancient Aryan warrior clan.Historian Avadh Bihari Lal Avasthi comments as follows: We find Kambhi, Kamma, Kumbhi etc castes in South India. There is also a famous city Koimb-toor. Possibly, there has also been a Kamboja country in Southern India (See Garuda Purana, Aik Adhyan p 28). Historians need to closely analyze if there are any links between Pahlava/Kambhoja migrations to Palnadu / Kammanadu region of ancient Telugu country.Kambhoja Raja Kathalu is very popular in Andhra traditions. The story deals with militaristic exploits of a fierce and adventuours king of Kambojas. It probably relates to some historical brush the Andhraites might have had with the intruding hordes of Kambojas/Pahlavas around Christian era. The region extending from the southern bank of Krishna river up to Nellore district of modern Andhra Pradesh was once called Kammanadu. Inscriptional evidence for Kammarashtram / Kammanadu exists since 3rd century CE. A part of Kammanadu is called Palnadu/Pallavanadu. Pallavas started their rule from the southern parts of Telugu country and later extended it to Tamil country with Kanchi as their capital. This strongly points out a wave of Kambhoja/ Pallava migration to coastal Andhra Pradesh.The Kamboja hordes of second/first century BCE have left indelible foot prints in the names of mountains, rivers, and some geographical places in western India. The Kamb/Kambuh river and Kamboh/Kambo mountain in Sindh ( Sind, p 44, M. R. Lamrick) remind us of Sanskrit Kamboja. The Kamboi (ancient town/port) in district Patan, Khambhoj in district Anand, Kambay (port/town and Gulf)... all in Saurashtra; Kumbhoj/Kambhoj (an ancient town) in Kolhapur in Maharashtra; and the Coimbatore city of Tamilnadu in southern India carry unmistakable footprints of Kambojas. There is also an ancient Kambhoj caste living near Nanded in Maharashtra which could be a dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled in SW India around Christian era. A similar analogy can be drawn with the Kamma (caste) of Andhra Pradesh which had a military past during medieval times. This caste is predominantly found in Kammanadu / Palnadu region. The people of this caste are known for their enterprising and boisterous nature.'
Kurmi Origin : Another origin of Kammas is speculated as follows. Buddhist Kurmis from Gangetic plains migrated to Krishna delta in large numbers to escape the persecution of Pushyamitra Sunga (184 B.C). Buddhism was already flourishing in Dharanikota, Bhattiprolu, Chandavolu etc in this fertile area. Historians surmised that the Sanskrit word Kurmi/Kurma became Kamma in later years. The first records of the word Kammakaratham appeared in the Jaggayyapeta inscription of Ikshvaku King Madhariputra Purushadatta (3rd century A.D.). The Kammarashtram extended from the Krishna River to Kandukur (Prakasam Dt.). The next record was that of Pallava King Kumara Vishnu II followed by that of Eastern Chalukya king Mangi Yuvaraja (627-696 A.D.). The subsequent inscriptions of Telugu Chodas and Kakatiyas mentioned ‘Kammanadu’ (E.g., Konidena inscription of Tribhuvana Malla – 1146 A.D.). This region is also known as Pallavanadu/Palanadu due to Pallava rule.
Famous Kurmis :
Sardar Vallabhai Patel (Former. Deputy Prime Minister of India)
Nitish Kumar ( Chief Minister of Bihar)
Sharad Pawar (Former. Chief Minister of Maharastra)
Dr.Cheddi Jagan (Former. Prime Minister of Guyana/West Indies)
Kammanadu/Kammakaratham : Kammanadu is an ancient geographical region in the present day South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The region straddled from the southern bank of Krishna river delta up to Kandukur (Prakasam Dt.). The word Kammanadu is derived from Karmarashtram (Sanskrit) or Kammaratham (Pali). Buddhism flourished in this region from 3rd century BC onwards. It is obvious that name was derived from the Theravada Buddhist concept of Karma (Kamma). Dharanikota, near Amaravati on the bank of Krishna river (Guntur Dt.) was the ancient capital of Satavahana dynasty which ruled South India for five centuries.The region is famous for the exquisite sculpture found in the Buddhist stupas of Bhattiprolu, Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati. The ancient Brahmi script found in the inscriptions at Bhattiprolu was the progenitor of modern Telugu and Tamil scripts.The mention of Karmarashtram is noticed first in the inscriptions of Ikshvaku king Madhariputra Purushadatta (3rd century A.D) found at Bethavolu (Jaggayyapeta). The next record is the inscription of Pallava king Kumara Vishnu II, son of Buddhaverma found in the village Chenduluru. The third record is that of Eastern Chalukya king Mangi Yuvaraja (627-696 AD) which goes as:Srisarvalokasraya maharajah kammarashtre chendaluri grame (Sanskrit)In all contemporary inscriptions (3rd to 11th century AD) the words Kammaratham, Kammakaratham, Karmarashtram, Karmakaratham and Karmakarashtram, Kammakarashtram were interchangeably used.Pavuluri Mallana, the contemporary of the great king Rajaraja Narendra (1022-1063 AD) wrote:Ila Kammanati lopala vilasillina Pavuluri vibhudan (Telugu)The subsequent inscriptions of Telugu Chodas and Kakatiyas mentioned ‘Kammanadu’ (E.g., Konidena inscription of Tribhuvana Malla – 1146 AD). During the rule of Kakatiya emperor Prataparudra II, one Boppana Kamaya was ruling Kammanadu with Katyadona (Konidena) as the capital.It is not known clearly when the usage of the word Kammanadu ceased. However, the name survives on as the denomination of a social group ‘Kamma’, predominantly found in the region.
Origin of Caste : The division of warrior class into many castes and their consolidation commenced in the time of Prataparudra I (1158-1195 A.D). Badabanala Bhatta prescribed Surnames and Gothras of Kammas. Castes such as Kamma, Velama, Reddy and Telaga probably had a common origin. The battle of Palnadu (1180 A.D) created strife among the social groups of the Telugu country, which echoes till today.The affiliation of Kammas as a caste to the ruling dynasties could not be ascribed till 11th century. Traces of evidence were found in the inscriptions of Telugu Chodas of Velanadu starting from Gonka I (1075-1115), found in many places in Kammanadu. The Dharanikota kings (1130-1251) who belonged to Kota clan of Kammas had marital alliances with Telugu Cholas. Similarly, Kota kings married the women from Kakatiya dynasty (E.g., Kota Betharaja married Ganapamba, daughter of Ganapati Deva). Ganapati Deva married the sisters of Jayapa Senani, a brave warrior hailing from Chebrolu (Guntur Dt.). Jayapa is also well known for his contributions to the field of Indian dance (1231 A.D). Around this time many warriors from Kammanadu joined the forces of Kakatiya empire. Such evidences prompted some historians to speculate that Kakatiyas were Kammas. However, this theory needs to be validated.Kammas grew to prominence during the Kakatiya reign. In the middle ages they held important positions in their army. Two Kamma chieftains, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka served the Kakatiya king Prataparudra. After the fall of Warangal they united the Nayaka chieftains, wrested Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for 50 years Subsequently many Kammas migrated to the Vijayanagar kingdom. During the Vijayanagar rule Kamma Nayaks formed the bulwark of its army and were Governors in Tanjore, Madurai and Coimbatore areas of Tamil Nadu. For instance, Krishnadevaraya sent a Cheiftain Pemmasani Vishwanatha Nayudu to suppress the rebellion of his father Pemmasani Nagama Nayudu in Madurai. Later, Vishwanatha Nayudu was made Governor of Madurai. The Pemmasani Kamma clan still has a Zamindari near Madurai called Nayakarpatti. An interesting historical episode was that a Kamma Nayak Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu saved the life of Krisnadeva Raya in the battle of Raichur and the grateful king made him the Governor of Gandikota (Cuddapah district). Thimma Nayudu constructed a large number of temples in Rayalaseema region.Kammas controlled parts of south and north Tamil Nadu for several years under the title of Nayacker, which was a legacy of the Vijayanagar Empire. Thirumala Nayacker of Madurai was the most famous among them.
Great Kamma Rulers:
The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. They were one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries.Origins
During the 10th and 11th centuries the Vengi region came under the rule of Kalyani chalukyas and the Chola at differnt times. The time period between 1000CE and 1118CE saw repeated wars between these two powerful kingdoms for control of Vengi. The Kakatiya dynasty ruled as Chalukya feudatories over parts of present day Andhra Pradesh during this time. After the death of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI in 1126AD, The 12th and the 13th centuries saw the emergence of the Kakatiyas. They were at first the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II, who ruled from A.D.1110 to 1158, extended his sway to the south and declared his independence. His successor Rudra (A.D.1158--1195) pushed the kingdom to the north up to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler Mahadeva extended the kingdom to the coastal area. In A.D.1199, Ganapati succeeded him. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A.D.1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade.
As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in A.D.1262 and carried on the administration. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her, rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule.
Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara. In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute. In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.
The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.
Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.
The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan.
The most important of these temples are those at Palampeta, Hanamkonda and the incomplete one in the Warangal fort. The temple at Palampeta, described as the 'brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture', was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in S.1135 (A.D.1213). The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls. The sculptures, especially of the dancing girls, possess the suggestion of movement and pulsating life. A striking peculiarity of this temple is the figure-brackets which spring from the shoulders of the outer pillars of the temple. The figure-brackets are mere ornaments and represent the intermediate stage between their earlier analogues at Sanchi and the later examples at Vijayanagara.
The Thousand-Pillared Temple at Hanamkonda, built by the Kakatiya king Rudra in A.D.1162, is similar in style and workmanship to the Ramappa temple. This temple, dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands, the beautiful entrances to the shrine, the pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.
The temple in the Warangal fort, believed to have been built by Kakatiya Ganapati, was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called 'Kirti Stambhas' which face the four cardinal points of the compass. In their design the gateways are reminiscent of the 'toranas' of the Great Stupa at Sanchi. The architecture and sculpture of these temples are thus conventional to a degree but no one can deny their magnificence nor can any one fail to see the rich imagination, patient industry and skilful workmanship of the builders of the temples of the Kakatiya period.Fall of the dynasty
The queen Rudramadevi was succeeded by her grandson Prataparudra (1295-1323). Prataparudra expanded borders towards the west, whilst introducing many administrative reforms, some of which were also later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire. However, the empire was under threat from the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Despite defeating the first wave of attack from the Delhi Sultanate in 1303, in 1310 the invading army defeated the King. After agreeing to a large tribute the kingdom was spared. However, after Khilji's death the tribute was withheld which provoked the final and fatal attack on the Kingdom in 1323. Prataparudra was captured by Ulugh Khan (later known as Muhammad bin Tughluq) and died en route to Delhi.The Kakatiya dynasty ended and resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime.Two cousins belonging to Musunuri clan kapayya nayudu and prola nayudu who served as army chiefs for Kakatiya kingdom later united the Telugu people and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century.Legacy
The Kakatiya dynasty is regarded as one of the golden ages in Telugu history. The kingdom was ruled by Telugu speaking hindu rulers who encouraged literature, art and architecture. The Thousand-pillar Temple in Hanmakonda (now merged with Warangal) stands as testimony to this. And the famous Kohinoor diamond which was unearthed near the Golconda fort during their reign, was among the booty carried.
Musunuru Nayaka DynastyIntroduction
The conquest of South India (Deccan) by the Delhi Sultanate started in 1296 when Alauddin Khilji, the son-in-Law and commander of the Sultan Jalaluddin raided and plundered Devagiri (Maharashtra). Khilji subsequently murdered the Sultan and took over the reins of the Sultanate. The glory and wealth of the Kakatiya kingdom attracted the attention of Khilji. The first foray into the Telugu kingdom was made in 1303 by the Sultan’s armies led by Malik Fakruddin. It was a disaster because of the valiant resistance of the Kakatiya army in the battle at Upparapalli (Karim Nagar District). The second attempt was made in 1309 by Malik Kafur who managed to capture Siripur and Hanumakonda forts. Warangal fort was taken after a prolonged seize. Malik Kafur indulged in murder and mayhem around the fort which prompted King Prataparudra to make a pact and offer an enormous amount of tribute. Prataparudra asserted his independence in 1320 when there was a change of power in Delhi. The Khilji dynasty ended and Ghiasuddin Tughlak ascended the Delhi throne. Tughlak sent his son Ulugh Khan in 1323 to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king. Ulugh Khan’s raid was repulsed but he returned in a month with a larger and determined army. The unprepared and battle-weary army of Warangal was finally defeated. The loot, plunder and destruction of Warangal continued for months. Loads of gold, diamonds, pearls and ivory were carried away to Delhi on elephants and camels. The Kohinoor diamond was part of the booty. The large population was forcibly converted to Islam, women were raped and molested and mosques were erected over the demolished temples. The vandalism and cruel atrocities of the Muslim army demoralized the common people who were unfamiliar with the methods adopted by the invaders. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. He committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada while being taken to Delhi.The Valiant Cousins
King Prataparudra’s Kakatiya kingdom was ably served by seventy five chieftains called Nayaks. The Nayaks who belonged to various agrarian castes such as Velama, Kamma, Reddy, Balija, Teliga, Boya etc., were divided by mutual jealousy and rivalry. However, the Nayak chiefs valiantly fought during the hour of the need. Many Nayak chiefs were captured, converted to Islam and sent back as governors. These included Harihara and Bukka who later established Vijayanagar kingdom at Hampi. Some like Minister Jagannatha Pandit occupied exalted positions in Delhi Durbar.
The year 1323 was a turning point in the history of Telugu country. After the fall of Warangal, Muslim armies marched forward and captured Kondapalli, Kondaveedu, Rajahmundry, Nidadavole, Nellore, and Kolanuveedu forts. The conquest spread up to Madhura (Tamil Nadu) and Malabar (Kerala). Hoyasala and Kampili kingdoms (Karnataka) also became part of the Sultanate. The conquest of South India was complete. Ulugh Khan ascended the Delhi throne under the name Mohammed Bin Tughlak.
The following years witnessed all round misery, destruction, oppression, forcible conversion, pillage and plunder. The Telugu country was in great turmoil and ferment. Seeds of revolution were sown. Two patriotic souls, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva exhorted and united the remaining Nayak chieftains. They instilled a sense of unity and sacrifice to protect the Telugu country and Hindu Dharma.
A dynamic and valiant Kamma Nayak hailing from Vegi (West Godavari District) was chosen as their leader. He is Musunuri Prolayanayak (Prolaaneedu), a brave and battle-hardy warrior. Prolaya was the son of Pochinayak who had three brothers namely Devanayak, Kammanayak and Rajanayak. The son of Devanayak was Kaapayanayak (Kaapaneedu) who was the right hand man of Prolaya. he other cousins of Prolaya also ably assisted him in his endeavours. Prolaya galvanized all the Nayaks and their progeny and united them with his organizational skills. The Nayaks set aside their differences and rallied under the leadership of Prolaya to safeguard the Hindu Dharma.Triumph and Freedom
Battles were fought at all levels at a great cost and independence was achieved after many a sacrifice. Nayak armies liberated Warangal by 1326 and drove away Muslims from Telugu country. Many of the inscriptions glorified the victories of Prolaya and the statecraft he practiced. The cousins strengthened the forts, rebuilt the temples, restored village grants to Brahmins and encouraged arts and literature. Ageing Prolaya retired to Rekapalli fort (East Godavari district) after vesting the power in younger and more dynamic Kaapaya.
Inspired by the victories of the cousins, other kingdoms like Kampili, Hoyasala, Dwarasamudram and Araveedu asserted independence. Historical evidence showed that the Nayaks actively assisted other kings to achieve freedom from the Sultanate. Harihara and Bukka who were captured at Warangal by Ulugh Khan and converted to Islam were sent by the Sultan to suppress the rebellion of Hoyasala king. The brothers, however, switched sides and went on to establish Vijayanagar Kingdom. Jalaluddin Hassan, the governor of Madhura also declared his independence from the Sultan. This was the last straw on the Camel’s back. The Sultan personally led a huge army southward. He reached Warangal but had to make a hasty retreat. He appointed Malik Maqbool as the Governor and left. Historians opined that a great epidemic prevalent during that time and the formidable resistance of the Nayaks were the reasons for the retreat. Kaapaya wanted to utilize the opportunity to liberate the whole of Telangana including Bidar. He sought the help of Hoyasala king in this endeavour. The Nayaks fought in unison and Kaapaya succeeded in capturing the Warangal fort and l iberating Telangana from the invaders. The flag of Andhradesa was unfurled on the Warangal fort. Kaapaya was given the titles “Andhradesaadheeswara” and “Andhrasuratraana”.
Kaapaya was always wary of attacks by the Sultan’s armies from the north. He strengthened the forts and replenished the army. However, a new and bigger threat loomed on the horizon. A revolt by a group of Muslim nobles against Muhammed Bin Tughlaq that began in Devagiri in 1345 culminated in the foundation of the Bahmani kingdom by Hasan Gangu. He assumed the name Alauddin Bahman Shah and moved his capital to the more centrally located Gulbarga in 1347. Alauddin was an ambitious man and his goal was to conquer the whole of Dakshinapatha (Deccan).The Decline
The unity fostered by the Musunuri cousins among the Nayaks started showing strains fuelled by envy. Recherla Nayaks led by Singama raided Addanki which was under the control of Vema Reddy. Vema Reddy sought the help of Kaapaya who intervened and forced Singama to accept the confederation. ingama was unable to reconcile to this act. Kaapaya also helped Bahmani king in good faith to ward off Delhi Sultan’s attack. He would soon find Alauddin turn ungrateful.
Singama and his sons induced Alauddin to interfere in the affairs of Warangal. Bahmani king was too eager to oblige. Telangana was invaded in 1350. Kaapaya’s army fought an unexpected but heroic battle in vain. He concluded a treaty with Alauddin and surrendered Kaulas fort. This was the first setback to the unified Telugu kingdom.
The death of Mohammed Bin Tughlak in 1351 emboldened Alauddin to achieve his goal of expanding his kingdom in Deccan. He marched into Telangana in 1355 with greatly enlarged army and captured many forts including Bhuvanagiri. Alauddin spent a year in Telangana and engaged in another round of destruction and plunder. He reurned to Gulbarga and died in 1359. Mohammed Shah succeeded Alauddin. At this time Kaapaya sent his brave and boisterous son Vinayaka Deva to liberate Kaulas and Bhuvanagiri from Bahmanis. The Vijayanagar king Bukkaraya actively assisted him in this campaign. Vinayaka Deva had initial successes but was eventually defeated, captured and killed in a cruel and ghastly manner.
Kaapaya was disheartened but his goal was to destroy Bahmani kingdom. Along with Bukka Raya he planned a great expedition against Bahmanis. Mohammed Shah got enraged and invaded Telangana again. Golconda and Warangal were subdued. Bukka Raya died during this time. Lack of support from Vijayanagar and non-cooperation from Devarakonda and Rachakonda Nayaks also contributed to the fall of Warangal. Historians feel that Rachakonda Nayaks surreptitiously helped Bahmani king. Mohemmed Shah spent two years in Telangana and wiped out all remnants of Hindu temples. Golconda was chosen as the border between Bahmani and Warangal kingdoms in 1365. Kaapaya had to present the turquoise throne and large amounts of tribute to Mohammed Shah. This was the major setback and turning point in the history of Andhradesa.
Singamanayak of Recherla and his sons took advantage of the situation and declared independence. They marched against Warangal ruled by a weakened and disheartened Kaapaya. The treasury was empty and the army was war-weary. Kaapaya met Singama’s army at Bhimavaram and died a martyr’s death. Thus ended the short but glorious reign (1326-1370) of Musunuri clan which united the Telugu country, its people and its warriors, and protected Hindu Dharma. The valour, dedication and undaunted spirit of sacrifice of Musunuri Nayaks are unparalleled in the history of Telugu land.
After the martyrdom of Kaapaya Nayak there was an en masse migration of Nayaks and their progeny to the Vijayanagar Kingdom. These Nayaks formed the bulwark of Vijayanagar Empire and bravely defended South India and Hindu dharma for the next two centuries. Relatives of Kaapaya such as Mummadi and Anavota briefly controlled small areas in the coastal districts which were eventually absorbed into Reddy kingdom. Nayaks who were unwilling to surrender and serve as vassals were pursued and killed by the Muslim armies.
The Nayak Dynasty (1559—1736)
The Madurai Nayaks were the rulers of the city and region of Madurai, in India, from 1559 until 1736. They originally were princes from the Vijayanagar Empire, and Telugu was their native language. The Nayak dynasty at Madurai established a strong bond between the people and the rulers through local government innovations, such as the formation of 72 divisions or paalayams. The Nayak reign marked a new era in Tamil Nadu, one noted for its vast administrative reforms, the revitalization of temples previously ransacked by the Delhi sultans, and the inauguration of a unique architectural style. The reign consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, and 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king Tirumalai Nayak and the queen Rani Mangammal. Their foreign trade was conducted mainly with the Dutch and the Portugese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region.Origins
At the close of Vitthala Raja’s administration the Chola ruler invaded the Madurai country and dispossessed the Pandya king. The latter appealed to the court of Vijayanagar, and an expendition under Pemmasani Nagama Nayaka was sent to his aid. Nagama easily suppressed the Chola ruler and took Madurai, but then suddenly he threw off his allegiance and declining to help the Pandya, usurped the throne. The Vijayanagar emperor demanded that someone cure the defection: Nagama’s own son, Visvanatha, volunteered, and the king sent him with a large force against the rebel. Viswanatha defeated his father, placed him in confinement and at length procured for him the unconditional pardon which doubtless had been the object of his action from the beginning.
Visvanatha obeyed the orders of the Vijayanagar king nominally, in that he placed the Pandya on the throne. But both secret policy and his own interests deterred him from handing over the entire government of the country to the old and feeble dynasty. He set out to rule on his own account. This was in 1559.Viswanatha Nayak (1559—1563)
Viswanatha, then, became the first ruler of the Nayak dynasty. Viswanatha is said to have set himself immediately to strengthening his capital and improving the administration of his dominions. He demolished the Pandya rampart and ditch which at that time surrounded merely the walls of Madurai's great temple, and erected in their place an extensive double-walled fortress defended by 72 bastions; and he constructed channels from upper waters of the Vaigai river — perhaps the Peranai and Chittanai dams owe their origins to him to water the country, founding villages in the tracts irrigated by them.Introduction of the polygar (palayakkarar) system
In his administrative improvements Viswanatha was ably seconded by his prime minister Aryanatha Mudaliar (or, as he is still commonly called, Aryanatha), a man born of peasant Vellala parents who had won his way by sheer ability to a high position in the Vijayanagar court. This officer is supposed to have been the founder of "the polygar (palayakkarar) system", under which the Madurai country was apportioned among 72 chieftains, some of them locals and others Telugu leaders of detachments which had accompanied Vishvanatha from Vijayanagar. Each was placed in charge of one of the 72 bastions of the Madurai fortifications. They were responsible for the immediate control of their estates. They paid a fixed tribute to the Nayaka kings and maintained a quota of troops ready for immediate service. These men did much for the country in those days, founding villages, building dams, constructing tanks and erecting temples. Many of them bore the title of Nayakkan, and hence the common "nayakkanur" as a termination to the place names in this district. They also brought with them the gods of the Deccan, and thus we find in Madurai many shrines to Ahobilam and other deities who rarely are worshipped in the Tamil country. Their successors, the present zamindars of the district, still look upon Aryanatha as a sort of patron saint. Aryanatha also is credited with having constructed the great thousand-pillared mantapam in the Madurai temple. He is commemorated by an equestrian statue which flanks one side of the entrance to the temple. The statue is still periodically crowned with garlands by modern worshippers. He lived until 1600 and had great influence upon the fate of the Nayaka dynasty until his death.Visvanatha added the fort of Trichinopoly to his possessions. The Vijayanagar viceroy who governed the Tanjore country had failed to police the pilgrim roads which ran through Trichinopoly, to the shrines at Srirangam and Ramesvaram, and devotees were afraid to visit those holy places. Visvanatha exchanged that town for his fort at Vallam, in Tanjore. He then improved the fortifications and town of Trichinopoly, and the temple of Srirangam, and he cleared the banks of the Cauvery river of robbers.Visvanatha had difficulty with some of the local chieftans, who resisted his authority in Tinnevelly, but after vanquishing them he improved that town and district. Visvanatha died aged and honoured in 1563. He still is affectionately remembered as having been a great benefactor of his country.Kumara Krishnappa (1563—1573)
Viswanatha Nayaka was succeeded by his son Kumara Krishnappa (1563-73), who is remembered as having been a brave and politic ruler. A revolt occurred among the polygars, during his reign, but its leader was captured and the trouble was quenched.Joint Rulers : Kumara Krishnappa was succeeded in 1573 by his two sons, who ruled jointly and uneventfully until 1595, when they in turn were succeeded by their two sons, one of whom ruled until 1602.Muttu Krishnappa (1602—1609)
These were followed by Muttu Krishnappa. He is credited with having founded the dynasty of the Setupatis of Ramnad, the ancestors of the present Raja of that place, who were given a considerable slice of territory in the Marava country on condition that they suppress crime and protect pilgrims journeying to Rameswaram. These were the beginnings of Ramnad zamindari.Muttu Virappa (1609—1623)
Muttu Krishnappa was succeeded by Muttu Virappa. He began the construction of the Fort at Dindigul on the Hill, along with the Temple on it, which later was completed by Tirumala Nayaka.Fall of the Vijayanagar Kingdom, 1565
In 1565 the Muslim rulers of the Deccan defeated Vijayanagar, the suzerain of the Nayaks, at the battle of Talikota. Vijayanagar had to abandon Bellary and Anantapur, flee their capital, and take refuge at Penukonda in Anantapur, then at Vellore, and then at Chandragiri near Tirupathi, which later granted land to the British East India Company to build a fort at the present day Chennai. Finally they settled at Vellore in North Arcot. Their governors at Madurai, Gingee and Tanjore still paid them tribute and other marks of respect; but in later years, when their suzerainty became weak, the Nayaks ruled independently.Tirumala Nayak (1623—1659)
Muttu Virappa, mentioned above, was succeeded by the great "Tirumala Nayaka", the most powerful and best-known member of his dynasty, who ruled for thirty-six eventful years. Please see the article devoted to him and his reign at Tirumala Nayaka.Muttu Alakadri (1659—1662)
Tirumala was succeeded by his son Muttu Alakadri, whose first act was to shake off the hated Muslim yoke. He tried to induce the Nayak of Tanjore to join the enterprise, but the move backfired: the Tanjore ruler disclaimed all connection with his neighbour’s aspirations and attempted to conciliate with the Muslims. The Muslim invaders moved against Trichinopoly and Madurai, spreading havoc, while Muttu Alakadri remained inactive behind the walls of the fort. Fortunately for him, the enemy soon had to retire, for their devastations produced a local famine and pestilence from which they themselves suffered terribly. They made a half-hearted attempt on Trichinopoly and then permitted themselves to be bought off for a very moderate sum. Muttu Alakadri did not long survive their departure, but gave himself over to debauchery with an abandon which soon brought him to a dishonoured grave.Chokkanatha (1662—1682)
Tirumala was succeeded by his son Chokkanatha, a promising boy of sixteen. Please see the separate article devoted to him at Chokkanatha Nayak.Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa (1682—1689)
Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa, who succeeded Chokkanatha was a spirited boy of fifteen. He tried to revive the diminished fortunes of the kingdom. He made a name for himself by ignoring Aurangazeb with courage, but little enough of his territories remained to him to rule. The greater part of them was held by Mysore, some by the Maravans, some by the Marathas of Gingee, and some by the Marathas of Tanjore. At first, the country was subject to anarchy and pillage, foreign enemies occupied all the forts, and robber chiefs were masters of the rural areas and carried on their brigandage there with impunity.Matters slowly improved, with Mysore soon distracted by a war with the Marathas of Gingee, and both the Setupathis of Ramnad and the Marathas of Tanjore occupied by wars within their own countries. Emperor Aurangzeb in 1686—1687 conquered the kingdoms of Madura’s old enemies, Golconda and Bijapur, and he was for many years engaged in an exhausting war with the Marathas. Moreover the young Nayak of Madurai, though imbued with a boyish love of fun and adventure which endeared him to his countrymen, also had a stock of sound sense and ability which evoked the admiration of his ministers, and he took advantage of his improving prospects.Muthu Virappa recovered his capital in 1685, and he gradually reconquered large parts of the ancient kingdom of his forefathers and succeeded in restoring the power of the Nayaks of Madurai. Unfortunately he died of smallpox in 1689, at the early age of 22. His young window Muttammal — the only woman, strange to say, whom he had married — was inconsolable at his loss and, though she was far advanced in pregnancy, insisted upon committing sati on his funeral pyre. His mother, Rani Mangammal, with great difficulty persuaded her to wait until her child was born, solemnly swearing that she could then have her way. When the child (a son) arrived, she was put off with various excuses until, despairing of being allowed her wish, she put an end to her own life.Rani Mangammal (1689—1704)
Mangammal, the mother of the late Nayak, acted for the next fifteen years as Queen-Regent on behalf of her grandson. She was the most popular of all the Nayaks. Please see the separate article on her at Rani Mangammal.Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha (1704—1731)
Her grandson Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha, starting on a bad note, enjoyed a long but apparently dull reign of 26 years, paving way for the demise of the dynasty. He was vain and weak-minded, and unfit to govern either himself or others. His reign was distinguished by the ill-regulated and extraordinary munificence of his gifts to Brahmins and religious institutions. The injustice of his rule caused a serious riot in Madurai, the mutiny of his troops, and incessant disturbances.His only warfare was over the succession to the throne of Ramnad, in 1725. Of the two claimants, one was supported by Tanjore Marathas and the other by Madurai and the Tondaiman of Pudukkotai. The Tanjore troops won a decisive victory and placed their protege on the throne. A year or two later the Tanjore king deposed this very protege, and divided Ramnad into Ramnad and Sivaganga, which became independent Marava powers.Queen Meenakshi, Chanda Sahib, & the End of the Nayaks (1731—1736)
Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha died in 1731, and was succeeded by his widow Meenakshi, who acted as Queen-Regent on behalf of a young boy she had adopted as the heir of her dead husband. She had only ruled a year or two when an insurrection was raised against her by Vangaru Tirumala, the father of her adopted son, who pretended to have claims of his own to the throne of Madurai. At this juncture representatives of the Mughals appeared on the scene and took an important part in the struggle. Since 1693, Madurai nominally had been the feudatory of the emperor of Delhi, and since 1698 the Carnatic region north of the Coleroon (Kollidam) river had been under direct Muslim rule. The local representative of the Mughal was the Nawab of Arcot, and an intermediate authority was held by the Nizam of Hyderabad, who was in theory both a subordinate of the emperor, and the superior of the Nawab. How regularly the kings of Tanjore and Madura paid their tribute is not clear, but in 1734 — about the time, in fact, that Meenakshi and Vangaru Tirumala were fighting for the crown — an expedition was sent by the then-Nawab of Arcot to exact tribute and submission from the kingdoms of the south. The leaders of this expedition were the Nawab’s son, Safdar Ali Khan, and his nephew and confidential adviser, the well-known Chanda Sahib.The invaders took Tanjore by storm and, leaving the stronghold of Trichinopoly untouched, swept across Madurai and Tinnevelly and into Travancore. On their return from this expedition they took part in the quarrel between Meenakshi and Vangaru Tirumala. The latter approached Safdar Ali Khan with an offer of three million rupees if he would oust the queen in favour of himself. Unwilling to attack Trichinopoly, the Muslim prince contented himself with solemnly declaring Vangaru Tirumala to be king and taking the bond for the three millions. He then marched away, leaving Chanda Sahib to enforce his award as best he could. The queen, alarmed at the turn affairs now had taken, had little difficulty in persuading that facile politician to accept her bond for a crore of rupees (ten million) and declare her duly entitled to the throne.Queen Meenakshi required him to swear on the Koran that he would adhere faithfully to his engagement, and he accordingly took an oath on a brick wrapped up in the spledid covering usually reserved for that holy book. He was admitted into the Trichinopoly fort and Vangaru Tirumala — apparently with the good will of the queen, who, strangely enough, does not seem to have wished him any harm — went off to Madurai, to rule over that country and Tinnevelly. Chanda Sahib accepted the crore of rupees and departed to Arcot. Two years later 1736 he returned, again was admitted into the fort, and proceeded to make himself master of the kingdom. Meenakshi soon was little but a puppet: she had fallen in love with Chanda Sahib and so let him have his own way unhindered.Chanda Sahib eventually marched against Vangaru Tirumala, who still was ruling in the south, defeated him at Ammaya Nayakkanur and Dindigul, drove him to take refuge in Sivaganga, and occupied the southern provinces of the Madurai kingdom. Having now made himself master of all of the unfortunate Meenakshi’s realms, he threw off the mask, ceased to treat her with the consideration he hitherto had extended to her, locked her up in her palace, and proclaimed himself ruler of her kingdom. The hapless lady took poison and ended her life shortly afterwards.Descendants of Vangaru Tirumala
As late as 1820, a descendant of Vangaru Tirumala, bearing the same name, was in Madurai endeavouring to obtain pecuniary assistance from the government. He and his family lived in Vellaikurichi, in the Sivaganga zamindari, and their children were there until quite recently. It is said that they still kept up the old tradition of holding recitations, on the first day of Chittrai in each year, of a long account of their pedigree and of a description of the boundaries of the great kingdom of which their forebears had been rulers.Nayak rule and Tiruchi
The significance of Nayak rule in checking invasion by northern rulers elevated Tiruchi in the eyes of national history. Had it not been for the Nayak rule, the central part of Tamil Nadu, particularly what today has come to be known as Tiruchi, Thanjavur, and Perambalur districts, would not have gained its own historical identity and unique cultural development. The Tiruchi range comprised five major paalayams: Udayarpalayam, Ariyalur, Marungapuri, Thuraiyur and Cuddalore. They constructed new mandapams at several temples, including the Srirangam Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, and the Rock Fort. The Vijayanagar dynasty was chiefly responsible for the present and permanent glory of Tamil Nadu, which was ransacked by the earlier Delhi Sultanate. But for the invasions by Kumara Kampana Udayar against the Sultans of Madurai, the state's cultural civilisation would have been doomed. Wasteland development and the setting up of water harvest structures formed part of the Nayak rulers' welfare programmes. It was at Rani Mangammal Hall in Tiruchi that one of the Nayak rulers, Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayak, launched a stiff opposition to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.Nayak coins
Most Nayak coins were made of gold or copper. The design, figures, size, and weight of Nayak coins all were similar to those of Vijayanagara coins. Sadasiva Nayak issued some beautiful Nayak coins: one gold coin shows Shiva and Parvati seated next to one another — Shiva holds the trisula (trident) and the mriga (antelope) in his hands. Another gold coin of the same ruler features the mythical bird gandabherunda. This coin is almost identical to the gandabherunda coins minted by the Vijayanagara ruler Achyutaraya. A rare copper coin of this ruler displays, on its obverse, the standing figure of Kartikeya (Muruga), with his favourite peacock behind him. The reverse depicts the Nandi (sacred bull) below the Shivalinga.The Madurai Nayaks issued many coins featuring fish, the emblem of the Pandyas, who ruled Madurai before the Vijayanagara and Nayak rulers.Some early Madurai Nayak coins portray the figure of the king. The bull also is seen frequently on the Madurai Nayak coins. Chokkanatha Nayak, one of the last rulers of the dynasty, issued coins displaying various animals, such as the bear, elephant and lion. He also issued coins featuring Hanuman and Garuda. The inscriptions on the Nayak coins are in Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, and Nagari scripts. Unlike the coins of many of the earlier dynasties, the Nayak coins are easily available for coin-collectors.Nayak temples
The Madurai and Tanjavur Nayaks made great contributions to architectural style, the main characteristics of this period being the elaborate mandapas of the "hundred-pillared" and "thousand-pillared" types, the high gopurams with stucco statues on the surface, the long corridors. The main temples representing this style in various portions are:
The Ranganatha temple at Srirangam — for its increase in the number of enclosures;
The temple at Rameswaram — for its long corridors;
The Subramanya temple at the Brihadisvara Temple court at Tanjavur — for its fine vimana with ardha and maha mandapas;
Meenakshi Temple at Madurai - for the great splendour of its gopuras, its "thousand- pillar" mandapam, and the Mariamman Teppakulam ("water tank" / reflecting pool).
The first Vasireddy last name (surname) was available at Pittapuram East Godavari Dist. Sri Pothineedu ruled the area in 1413 AD and constructed temples of Vishnu, Sun, Visweswara, Gowri, and Kukkutaeswara after a century there is no history. The vasireddy family might have migrated to Krishna District Nandigama and later Guntur and adjacent districts. As per the available history Vasireddy malikharjunudu might have ruled capitol of "Vassile" from AD 1500 to 1527. Due to disputes in paying cess it leaded to war between Hyderjung (chief of the Army of KULI KUTUBUSHA).Hyderjung and Mallikharjunudu died in the war.
Mallikharjunudu might have suspected his death and asked his wife to get on her life with their male child. She said to her husband that if it is happens, she will commit for Sathi. After hearing the sad news she committed suicide giving her two years boy SADASIVA RAYALU with gold ornaments to servant maid Lakshmi saying to go to Nuthaki village in Guntur Dist. Sadasivarayalu was bought up to seven years by the servant maid in a temple. Zamindar Kodali Ramabupathi has taken care Sadasivarayalu and got him married with his daughter. It is presumed that SADASIVARAYULU is the main origin of VASIREDDY DYNASTY during AD 1525.Rulers of the Vasireddy dynasty :
VASIREDDY RAMANNA ( AD 1668-1686 )
CHINA PADMANABHARAMANNA ( AD 1686-1712 )
BUCHI RAGHAVAIAH ( AD 1712-1714 )
CHANDRAMOULI ( AD 1714-1722 )
PEDA NARASANNA ( AD 1722-1727 )
PEDA SURANNA ( AD 1727-1738 )
CHINA SURANNA ( AD 1738-1740 )
CHINA NARSA BHUPATHI ( AD 1740-1758 )
CHINA RAMALINGAM ( AD 1758-1760 )
NAGANNA ( AD 1760-1763 )
RAMANNA ( AD 1763-1783 )
JAGGANNA ( AD 1763-1765 )
VENKATADRI NAIDU ( AD 1783-1816 )
Among all the rulers Raja Vasireddy Venkatadri Naidu is famous and ruled 33 years. He borne on 27th April 1761 and his parents Sri Vasireddy Jagganna and Smt Achamma. He was assumed charge in 1783 at Chintapalli. Later he crossed Krishna river and made Amaravathi as his capitol till his death. He is a well named philanthropist he built so many temples, Amaravathi, Managalagiri, Chebrolu, Ponnuru, Vijayawada, Srisailam and other places.
Raja Vasireddy Venkatadri Naidu renovated temple lord Amereswara.
Amaravathi : This ancient temple dedicated to Shiva enshrines a 15 feet high white marble Shiva Lingam and is surrounded by massive walls with towers. Raja Vasireddy Venkatadri Naidu renovated This temple constitutes one of the five Pancharama Kshetrams in Andhra Pradesh.
Managalagiri : On the eastern gate of the lower temple there is a "Gali Gopuram" at Narasimha swamy temple of dizzy height built by Sri Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu. The "Gali Gopuram" has eleven storeys with openings facing east and west. It is a marvellous example of a solid awe-inspiring construction.
Chebrole : Rarest temples on the earth is Chathurmukha Brahma temple at Chebrole nearer to Guntur, and also a huge single stone carved Nandieswara is located adjacent to the temple.
Ponnuru : So many temples have been built one of them is Bhavanarayana swamy temple with Lord Garuda.
The hard earned independence of Telugu land came to an end in fifty years with the martyrdom of Musunuri Kapaneedu in 1370 A.D at the hands of Velamas who colluded with Bahmani sultan (See Musunuri Nayaks). A large number of remaining Nayaks who served under Kapaneedu migrated to Vijayanagar and sworn allegiance to Bukka Raya, a close associate of Kapaneedu in protecting the Hindu dharma in Dakshnapatha. Among them, Pemmasani clan which earned laurels for their bravery and defense of Vijayanagar Empire in the coming four centuries was the most illustrious. Generations of Pemmasani clan were commanders for various dynasties of Vijayanagar Empire. The ancestors of Pemmasani clan (Gothram: Vallutla) belonged to Bellamkonda in ancient Kammanadu.
The first of Pemmasani clan was Kumara Thimma Nayudu who fought many a battle and won the trust of Bukka Raya. He built many forts in Jammulamadugu, Vajrakarur, Kamalapuram, Tadipatri, Pamidi etc. Later, Dharma Nayudu served as a General of Proudha Devaraya (Devaraya II).
The most famous of Pemmasani Nayaks was Thimma Nayudu. He valiantly fought in the battle of Kalubarige (1422 A.D.) and was made governor of Gandikota (Cuddapah district). Thimma ruled for a long time, constructed many temples and tanks and brought recognition to Gandikota.
Thimma Nayudu II participated in the expeditions of Krishna Deva Raya and captured Udayagiri, Addanki, Kondapalli, Rajahmundry and Katakam (Cuttack). He also played a crucial role in the conquest of Ummattur.
Ramalinga Nayudu ruled Gandikota (1509-1530) during the time of Krishna Deva Raya. His exploits in the well known battle of Raichur were extolled by many Telugu poets. He was most feared by the Muslim Generals of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. Ramalinga constructed many temples in Anantapur region.
Vijayanagar king (Sadasiva Raya) sent Lingama Nayudu to defeat the Chola king in Madura (Madurai) and restore the throne to Vitthala Raya in 1559. Lingama succeeded but later declared independence. The king asked the court who would teach Lingama a lesson. To everyone’s surprise, Viswanatha, son of Lingama, volunteered to do so. He subdued his father and brought him as a prisoner to Vijayanagar. The pleased king made Viswanatha governor of Madurai. After the downfall of Vijayanagar Empire in 1565 A.D Madurai Nayaks became independent. The glory of Madurai Nayaks and the great contributions of Tirumala Nayak, in particular, are celebrated in history.
After the death of Krishna Deva Raya, his son-in-law Aliya Ramaraya was dethroned by Salakam Chinna Tirumala Raya with the support of Bahmani sultan. Ramaraya sought the help of Bangaru Thimma Nayudu. Bangaru Thimma defeated Salakam Raya and restored the crown to Ramaraya. During the twilight of Vijayanagar Empire Gandikota rulers Bojja Thimma Nayudu and Venkatagiri Nayudu steadfastly helped Sriranga Raya by keeping Golkonda and Bijapur armies at bay.
The last ruler of Gandikota was Chinna Thimma Nayudu. At the behest of the minister Podila Linganna, Mir Jumla, the General of Golkonda Nawab raided Gandikota in 1652. There was stiff resistance. The fort was captured only after Linganna plotted and poisoned Chinna Thimma. Pinnayya Nayudu, son of Chinna Thimma and still very young, was saved and taken to Mysore by his relatives. Most of the Gandikota families (sixtysix surnames) migrated to Guntur, Kavetirajapuram (Chittor Dt), Madurai, Tirunelveli, Ramanathapuram etc. These people are collectively called Gandikota Kammas. A section of them is called ‘Gampa Kamma’. The meaning of Gampa in Telugu is ‘Large Basket’. It is not clearly known how this name came into being.
Kamma Nayaks of Kandy
Nayakar Dynasty of Kandy The Nayaks of Kandy (a.k.a. Nayakar Dynasty) were rulers of Kandy kingdom in Srilanka with Kandy as their capital from 1707 to 1815 and also the last dynasty to rule Sri Lanka.They were from the royal family of Madurai Nayaks of Telugu origins. There were four kings of this lineage and the last king was exiled by the British to Vellore fort in India. They assumed the Kandy throne through marriage alliances with the much prevailing Marumakkathayam law. These kings were Hindus later converted to Buddhism and were responsible for renaissance of Buddhist culture in the Island.
Origin : The Mahanuwara dynasty that preceded the Kandy Nayaks always married brides from royal family of Madurai Nayaks and Tanjore Nayaks. The Nayaks of South India started of as governors of Vijayanagara Dynasty during 14 and 15th centuries who ruled parts of Tamil Nadu. After the Vijayanagara Empire collapsed in mid 16th century these governors declared independence, establishing their own kingdoms in Tanjore, Madurai. They were of Telugu origins, one of the reasons for a large set of Telugu population in Western parts of Tamil Nadu.When the last king of Mahanuwara dynasty died without an heir, his queens brother from Madurai was chosen to throne as they followed the Marumakkathayam law. And successive kings were from the same kin from Madurai.The Nayaks of South India also had military relations in 17th century when Karaiyar generals of Jaffna sought the support of the Nayaks of Tanjavur in 1620 to fight against the Portuguese.These branches of Madurai Nayaks were reportedly headed by Bangaru Thirumalai whose son was adopted by the last Nayak Queen Meenakshi. Bangaru Thirumalai was a direct descendant of Thirumalai Nayaks younger Brother and was a Military governor in Tirunelveli and Madurai provinces.
The preceding Dynasty : The last king of Kandy of Mahanuwara dynasty was Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Singha who ruled from 1707 to 1739. This King ascended the throne in 1707 when he was seventeen and was considered to be a very pious and scholarly. In 1708 the king married a bride from Madurai Royal family, the daughter of Pitti Nayakkar. Again, in 1710, he married another bride from Madurai.He had no children by either of the queens. He also had a Kandyan wife from noble family of Matale. She bore him a son, who died at a very early age. The king also had a concubine from a high caste, who bore him a son named Unambuwe, and did survive. The bar to his succession was the lack of royal status in the mother.Thus, the king nominated, as his successor, the brother of his first queen who had remained at the court ever since his sister married him. According to the law of succession that prevailed in Ceylon, the throne passed almost always from father to son, born of a mahesi or from brother to brother. Marumakkathayam literarily means inheritance by sister's children (as opposed to sons and daughters).
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha 1739-1747 : Brother-in-law of King Narendra Singha ,i.e. Narendra Singha’s first wife’s brother, from Madurai, ascended the throne of Kandy, as Sri Vijaya Raja Singha.Coming from the line of Vijayanagar kings of South India and henceforth filling the Sinhala throne.The new king, considered to be a man of considerable culture, devoted his entire attention to the furtherance of the national religion Buddhism despite being a Hindu. He is said to have caused life sized images of Buddha in recumbent, standing and sitting postures to be cut in the rock caves in various parts of the country. His reign also marked several conflicts with the Dutch who were ruling the coastal provinces, based on trading issues. Sri Vijaya Rajasinha destroyed the churches and initiated a persecution against the Portuguese and Dutch, which was continued under Kirti Sri. It ceased only because the king considered that certain calamities which fell upon the country were due to his action.He married a bride from the Royal family of Madurai. But by 1736 the 200 year old Nayaka dynasty of Madurai came to an end with Muslims taking control of the whole country.
Marriage alliance with Madurai Royal Family : When the king ascended the throne he sought a wife from South India. For this purpose he sent messengers to Madurai in 1739. Since the Madurai Nayaks had now lost the power and prestige they enjoyed in the days of Vijayaranga Chokkanatha, the family members thought it advisable and even desirable to accept the offer from the king of Kandy. Hence the family of Bangaru Thirumala,who was now residing in Vellaikuruchi Fort near Thirupachetiram in Sivaganga Zamin responded. Two brothers Rama Krishnappa Nayaka and Narenappa Nayaka, kinsmen of Bangaru Tirumala Nayaka meet the Kandyan envoys at Ramnad.Narenappa Nayaka had a daughter of marriageable age and agreed to the Kandyan request. The brothers with their families and some kins accompanied the envoys to Ceylon for the daughter's nuptial; settled in Kandy with their kith and kin. Narenappa Nayaka was destined to be not only the father-in-law of one king, but the father of the next two kings of Kandy; for his two sons, the one five or six years old in 1740, and the other still an infant were successively to succeed Sri Vijaya Rajasinha.Sri Vijaya Rajasinha married another Madurai princess in 1747.Each bride brought a contingent of relatives with royal lineage ultimately making Kandy their permanent home.The king, however, died childless soon after, having nominated as his successor, his eldest brother in-law who had been living in the court ever since his sister had married the king. Thus by this peculiar mode of succession the son of Narenappa Nayaka who claimed kingship with the ruling Madurai Nayak family now ascended the throne of Kandy as Kirti Sri Rajasinha.
Sri Kirti Sri Raja Singha 1747-1782 : Kirti Sri Raja Singha was Vijaya Raja Singha’s wife’s eldest brother from Madurai.Hence another Brother-in-law to throne, thus the second of the South Indian line. He was a tender young man when he succeeded his brother-in-law, and it was not until the year 1751 that he ascended the throne as Kirti Sri Raja Singha.He devoted the first few years of his reign to the advancement of literature and religion. The king, later with the Dutch assistance got down to learning Bhikkus from Siam (Thailand) for the purpose of advancing Buddhism in Sri Lanka, also building the Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy. Kirti Sri built the existing inner temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic, and caused the Mahavansa chronicle to be continued from the time of Parakrama Bahu IV down to his own reign.
Attack on Dutch Forts : In 1761 King Keerthi Sri Rajasinha attacked the Dutch garrisons and forts at Matara, Katuwana, Tangalle, Marakade and Urubokke, completely destroying them, and killing Dutch while some surrendered and ended as prisoners. In order to revenge the humiliation, the new Dutch governor Van Eck had immediate plans to attack Kandy,but the weakness in fortification and garrison forbade the Dutch. Later they did attach in 1764 and in 1765. Hence, in the early part of 1763 the Dutch were only consolidating their positions and gradually expelling Kandyans from the territories taken over from Dutch. Throughout 1763 the King continually sought peace and sent his envoys to discuss terms. The Governor wished the King to cede the three four and seven Korales and Puttlam and hand over the entire coastline of island to the Dutch. The king was not agreeable to any demand that diminished his sovereignty and was deliberately delaying a settlement hoping for help from the English in Madras after his discussion and negotiations with John Pybus 1762.
Meeting with the British : The King in mid 1762 sought help from George Pigot, Governor Fort St George Madras for assistance. The British eager to obtain the monopoly of trading in cinnamon, pepper, betel nut (puwak) from Kandyan Kings also wanted to expel Dutch from coasts. Reason to call on British for assistance by the Kandyan King in 1762 was that after the treaty of Paris, the Dutch poured in troops into Sri Lanka. They were bent on capturing Kandy from six directions (1764). Anticipating such a scenario King sent an envoy to the English Governor of Madras to assist him to expel Dutch. This envoy, a junior Kandyan Official in military made a clandestine trip to Madras Fort, and the English responded by sending their councilor Mr Pybus.John Pybus, a writer of the British East India Company, sailed to Kandy with a backup of five ships and about 200 armed men. A British vessel brought Pybus to Trincomalee on 5 May 1762. The Dutch knew the arrival of Pybus through their spies and they were kept informed of his movements. Pybus took an exhausting covert trip to meet the King on 24 May 1762. After several talks without any conclusive decisions Pybus left after a month. King gave him a ring, sword, a gold chain with breast jewels and left the country crossing the river at puttalam pass while the The Dissawa who accompanied Pybus presented the ships commander "Admiral Cornish" a gold chain and a ring in the name of King "Keerthi Sri Rajasinha ".John Pybus in his notes described the King as a man of tolerable stature, reddish in complexion and very brisk in his movements. Pybus was amazed as to how the kandyans had managed to fight a war with Dutch and had captured Matara Dutch Fort. He wrote that "They had put every European to the sword except two officers who are now prisoners of the country."
Marriage : He married the daughter of one Nadukattu Sami Nayakkar in 1749. He further married three more Nayakkar queens from Madurai, but had no children, but had six daughters and two sons by his favorite Sinhala lady (Yakada Doli), daughter of the late Dissave (Headman) of Bintenna, grand-daughter of the blind and aged Mampitiya Dissave. Both his sons survived the king and his daughters’ married Nayakkar relatives of the king. Mampitiya’s sons claim for the throne was overlooked and the choice fell on the king’s brother who was living in court.The king died on January 2, 1782, of the injuries caused two months before by a fall from his horse after a reign of 35 years which the people saw as a great religious revival, and had a sentimental attachment to the King.
Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha 1782-1798 : Brother of Kirthi Sri Raja Singha, the new king who ascended the throne as Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha came from Madurai as a child along with his brother. Hence he was raised as a Kandyan and a Sinhala; emerging as a brilliant pupil of the Malwatte Temple’s chief Prelate at that time. He was quite a sophisticated person and learned many languages amongst which were Pali and Sanskrit. A lavish patron of Buddhism, he was a great aficionado of poetry and he himself was a poet.He died childless in 1798 without nominating a successor. The burden fell on Pilimatalava, the first Adigar (Prime Minister) Pilimatalawe, an able, ambitious and intriguing chief, to select a successor to the vacant throne. The controversial Adigar was also seen as one of the main reason for the Dynastys’ demise.
Sri Vikrama Raja Singha 1798-1815 : Son of a sister of King Rajadhi Raja Singha’s Queen Upendramma. The new king who ascended the throne was Sri Vikrama Raja Singha, the former kings’ nephew, barely 18 years old. He would also be the last king of the Kandy Nayakar dynasty and the last of Sri Lanka. During his time the British colony was fully established on other parts of SriLanka. There was a rival claimant to succeed King Rajadhi Raja Singha, the brother of Queen Upendramma, who had a stronger claim. However, Pilimatalawe, the first Adigar (prime Minister) choose the South Indian Prince to the Kandyan Throne, with reportedly deep seated plans to usurp the throne to set a new dynasty of his own. The young king, upon ascending the throne had to face lot of conspiracies.
Sri Vijaya Raja Singha 1739-1747 : During his time, the British who had succeeded the Dutch in the Maritime Provinces had not interfered in the politics of the Kandy. But Pilimatalava, the first Adigar of the king started covert operations with the British, to provoke the King into acts of aggression, which would give the British an excuse to seize the Kingdom. Later the King had to execute Pilimatalawe for attempting to murder him, after two previous pardons on treachery.The new First Adigar Ehalepola, Pilimatalawe nephew was no better as the British quickly won his support. A rebellion instigated by him Ehalepola was suppressed and Ehalepola fled to Colombo and joined the British. After failing to surrender (after 3 weeks of notice), the exasperated king ordered the execution of his family, which was highly propagandized, with a gruesome tale and defaming his as a tyrant.
Exiled : Now the British marched into Kandy, after gaining people support, who were eager to dispose the king. The King was taken as a royal prisoner to Vellore Fort, near Madras along with his family members. He was living on a small allowance given to him and his two queens by the British Government. It is claimed that this allowance was paid to his next-of-kin for next 156 years and stopped only when Sri Lanka regained its sovereignty.
Public Works : For centuries Kandy, originally known as Senkadagala, has been the bastion of Sri Lanka's culture and its spiritual centre. The palace complex at Kandy includes Sri Lanka's most venerated shrine, the Dalada Maligawa or Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic. Raja Maha Vihara (Gangarama) was built at Kandy by the second Nayak king Kirti Sri Raja Singha while his successor Sri Rajadhi Raja Singha was a lavish patron of Buddhism. The first Nayak king Sri Vijaya Raja Singha is noted for various erection of Buddhist statues throughout the Kingdom. The Kandy Lake overlooking Kandy was constructed by Sri Vikrama Raja Singha.
OTHER FAMOUS PEOPLE
Freedom fighters :
Gurram China VenkannaHe was resident of Uravakonda, Ananthapur Distrrict. He took part in the Quit India Movement and was sentenced on 21-4-42 to three months R.I and to pay a fine of Rs.50/- or in default, further one month R.I. He refused to pay the fine and was imprisoned in the Allipuram camp jail. Again he was sentenced on 23-6-43 by the special Judge, Ananthapur for 2 years R.I with a fine of Rs.500/- or in default, six months R.I. He was President for District Kissan Congress for some time. He joined the Praja Socialist Party in 1951. He resigned from that party before 1962 General Election. He was President, Uravakonda Panchayat, was member of District Board. He was MLA 1962-67 and 1967-72 and Minister for Small Scale Industries in the Brahmananda Reddy Cabinet from 1969 till his resignation in September 1971.
Devabathini Anjaneyulu Naidu (Chittor District) :He was resident of Chittor, son of Munuswami Naidu. He took part in the Individual Satyagraha Movemnet and suffered four months R.I from 15-1-1941 in the Vellore Central jail. He took considerable interest in social service. He started a school for Harijans and a Cosmopolitan hostel in 1941. He was General Secretray, District Harijan Sevak Sangh 1947-54. He was Elected as President, T.C.C in 1952. He worked as General Secretary, D.C.C 1960-64 and was subsequently elected as it's president. He was elected to A.P Legislative Assembly in 1967 and 1972. He died on October 13, 1972.
M.Munirathanam Naidu :He was born on 27, August, 1920 at Palamaner, Chittor District. He was a matriculate and an agriculturist, was also interested in social work. He took part in the 1941 Individual Satyagraha Movementand again participated in the 1942 Quit India Movement. He was awarded 18 months R.I under D.I.R and was sent to the Allipuram Camp jail for incarceration. He organised a Harijan Hostel. He was elected to the A.P Legislative Assembly in 1972. He was chairman, District Co-Operative Central Bank Ltd., Chittor from 1975.
Gorrepati Ramachandra Naidu :He was born on April 13, 1922 at Venkataramapuram, Chandragiri Taluk, Chittor District. While studying in the final year B.A at Madras, he took part in the Quit India Movement. He underwent 3 months imprisonment from 1-3-43 in the Allipuram Camp jail. Due to his political activities his studies were interrupted for some time. He took his M.A, LL.B degree from Bombay University. He practiced Law in the Madras High Court, 1949-54, and in the Andhra High Court 1954-55. He served as District Munsiff in 1956 and held various positions in Law Department, Secretarty to Government, A.P Legislative Department since 1-2-1975.
Gandhamaneni Sivayya :He was born in the year 1926. He was resident of Puttur, Chittor district, and took Law degree from Belgaum Law college and become an Advocate. He went to jail during the Quit India Movement in 1942. He was also a Trade Union Leader. He was elected to A.P Legislative Assembly from Puttur in 1967.
Bikkina Venkataratnam: He was resident of Chodavaram, Ramachandrapuram taluk, East Godavari. He resigned to his village officer's post and took part in Non Co-operative Movement 1920-21 and was convicted for six months R.I with a fine of Rs.1000/- for playing host to the Satyagrahis in his house. He suffered imprisonment from 7-6-1930 in the Rajahmundry and Vellore jails. He was again convicted under the D.I.R by the Joint Magistrate, Rajahmundry on 14-2-1941 to four months R.I with a fine of Rs.500/- for participating in th eIndividual Satyagraha Movement. He suffered improsonment in the rajahmundry, Bellary and Allipuram Jails. He was President Taluq Board Ramachandrapuram and President Co-Operative Central Bank, Ramachandrapuram for about 25 years. He was M.L.C of the Composite Madras State 1923-29 and MLA 1946-52. He was Minister in the Prakasam Cabinet, 1947. He was also President, A.P State Co-Operative Cental Bank.
Vasireddi Akhilandeswari :She was born on 1917, resident of Chebrolu, Guntur district. She took part in the Individual Satyagraha Movement, but was not arrested. She participated in the Quit India Movement and suffered 16 months R.I from 10-9-42 in the Vellore jail. She was the receipient of Tamra Patra on 15-8-1972 from the Government of India on the occation of the Silver Jubilee Celebrations of Indian Independence.
Suryadevara annapurnamma :She was born in the year 1903 at Veerulapadu, Nandigama taluq, Krishna District. She was resident of Chebrolu, Tenali taluq, daughter of Vasireddi Nagayya and wife of Suryadevara Venkatappayya. She took part in the 1930 Salt Satyagraha Movement and was arrested but released soon. Again she participated in Civil Disobedience Movement and was arrested at Chebrol and sentenced on 26-1-1932 to one year S>I with a fine of Rs.50/-, in default to undergo further two months S.I. She was imprisoned in the Vellore and Cannanore jails. She took part in the 1040 and 1942 Movements and she was also associated with the Join Indian Movement, 1947-48 in the erstwhile Hyderabad State. She was arrested at Yerrupalem, Madhira and was remanded in Madhira jail for one week and sent to Warangal Central jail, from where she was released after c onviction was set aside. She established free schools for girls in Veerulapadu. She was member, Krishna District Board for a long time and also Vice-President, Zilla Parishat, Krishna.
Gogineni Bharathi Devi :She was born in the year 1908 at Machavaram, Bapatla taluq, Guntur district, resident of Nidubrolu and daughter of Velaga Subbayya, wife of N.G.Ranga. She received early education at Sarada Niketan Guntur. She studied at Ruskin School of Arts, Oxford 1925-26. She conducted for six months, the camp for picketing of foreign cloth at Tenali 1931. She also organised women Satyagrahis of Guntur, West Godavari, and Krishna Districts during the Civil Disobedience Movement 1932 and was sentenced on 2-2-1931 to one year imprisonment and fine of Rs.500/-. She was incarcerated in the Vellore jail and was wounded during the Venkatagiri Zamindari Ryots campaign. She organised Harijan Day celebrations, inter-dining with Harijans and inter caste marriages. She was President, andhra Kisaan Congress 1940-42 and also collected funds for the defence of Madras Kissans in 1940. She was member, Madras State Educational Advisory Committee 1946-47. She Presided over the Andhra Women's Conference at Ghantasala, Krishna district, 1956 and worked for equal property rights for women. She did considerable service during the Rayalaseema famine 1952-53 by collecting cattle feeds, food grains and clothes and distributed them in the affected areas where she hailed as "Annapurna". She was elected member A.P. Legislative Council in 1958. She died on September 27, 1972.
Famous Kamma Christians :
Archbishop Thomas Pothacamury (Pothakamuri) :Born on September 2, 1889 in Ravipadu, Guntur District in andhra Pradesh. He was Archbishop of Bangalore for 27 years. He was Ordained Priest, 17 Dec 1916, Appointed Bishop of Guntur, India, 9 Apr 1940, Appointed Bishop of Bangalore, India, 15 Oct 1942. He was Appointed Archbishop of Bangalore, India, 19 Sep 1953. He was died on 11 Jan 1968.
Archbishop Samineni Arulappa :Born on August 28, 1924, in a Telugu-speaking village, Kilachery, near Chennai in Tamil Nadu, he was educated at the Loyola College, Chennai, and pursued religious studies at Kandy in Sri Lanka. He also acquired a doctorate in public administration from Oxford University, London. He was ordained a priest on May 6, 1950. Archbishop emeritus of Hyderabad, Samineni Arulappa, passed away at a private hospital here on Sunday. He was 81 and had been ailing for sometime. Incidentally, Pope Paul VI ordained him the Archbishop of Hyderabad on the same day 33 years ago in 1972 in Rome. Christened affectionately as the "Bishop of the poor," Arulappa had established the Archdiocese of Hyderabad as a leader in the fields of education, social work and religious work. Under his able leadership, several institutions were born and grew into centres of excellence over the years. Some of these were Loyola College, St. Ann's College, St. Joseph's College besides a string of schools, hospitals and social service centres to name a few. He was died on Feb-13-2005."By birth I am an Indian, by culture a Hindu and by faith, I am a Christian," the Archbishop had stated once. Indeed, a man of great tolerance and goodness who leaves behind a multitude of followers from all faiths.
Arjuna Award winners :
Kamineni Eswara Rao (Weight lifting): 1963
Movva Shyam Sundar Rao(Vollyball): 1974
Arikapudi Ramana Rao (Vollyball): 1977
Pullela Gopi Chand (Badminton): 1999
Koneru Humpi (Chess): 2004
Achanta Sarath Kamal (Table Tennis): 2002
Pentela Harikrishna (Chess): 2007
Dr.Myneni Hari Prasada Rao (Automic Energy)
Dr.Kotha Sachidananda Murthy (Philosophy): 1984
Dr.Thummala Madhava Rao
Dr. Akkineni Nageswara Rao
Moturi Satyanarayana : 1958
Ramanujam Varatharaja Perumal (Former Director-ISRO) (2002)
Dr. N.T.Rama Rao (Movie Artist): 1960
Dr. Akkineni Nageswara Rao
Moturi Satyanarayana: 1961
Dr.Yelavarthi Nayudamma (Science & Technology): 1971
Dr.G. Venkataswamy (Medicine)
Padmasri C.Narasimham IAS
Dr.Narla Tata Rao (Engineering): 1983
Dr.Kakarla Subba Rao (Medicine): 2000
Dr.Nuthakki Bhanu Prasad (Science & Technology): 1959
Dr. Lavu. Narendranath (Medicine): 2005
Dr. I. Venkata Subba Rao: (Science & Technology)2002
Pullela Gopi Chand (Sports): 2005
Dr. Yarlagadda Lakshmi Prasad (Literature): 2003
Dr.Gullapalli Nageswara Rao (Medicine): 2002
Dr. Kota Hair Narayana (Science & Technology): 2002
Dr.Gadde Rama Koteswara Rao (Medicine)
Dr.G.Bhaktavatsalam (Medicine), 2005
N.Perumalswamy (Medicine), 2007
Koneru Humpy (Sports), 2007
M.Mohan Babu, 2007
Dada Saheb Falke Award:
Dr.Akkineni Nageswara Rao: 1990
Dronacharya Award :
Arikapudi Ramana Rao (Vollyball): 1990
Movva Shyam Sundar Rao (Vollyball): 1995
Koneru Ashok (Chess): 2007
Rajeev Khel Ratna (Indias highest sporting honour) :
Pullela Gopichand (Badminton) : 2001
British Titles : Sir.
Sir. Edpuganti Raghavendra Rao
Rao Bahadur :
Bollini Munuswamy Naidu
Kakarla Rangaswamy Naidu
Kovelamudi Gopala Krishnaiah
Jagarlamudi Kuppuswamy Chaudary
Chalasani Satyanarayna Chaudary
Balusu Buchi Sarvarayudu
Kosaraju Ramayya Chauddary
Military Medals, I.A.F. - Medals :
Flying Cross : The Distinguished Flying Cross is awarded to officers and Warrant Officers for an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty performed whilst flying in active operations against the enemy. The slip-on bar has an eagle in the centre.
Flying Officer, Bollineni Ramachandra Rao, awarded in Jan 1945 (Awarded by British Governament)
Vishist Seva Medal : The Vishist Seva Medal forms the third level of decoration to be granted for distinguished service. The VSM was lower in precendence to the Vayu Sena Medal. But when the Yudh Seva Medal was instituted it was put in a higher precendence to the VM.
Wing Commander, Goli Mahendra, July 89
Sqadron Leader, Shiv Ram Krishna, July 89
Vayusena Medal : The Vayusena Medal (VM) is usually a peacetime award for a job well done. However it has been awarded during times of conflict for acts of gallantry in the face of enemy. Though not in the same numbers as the Vir Chakra.
Wing Commander: Srinivas Anand Bhaskar Naidu, 26 Jan 81
MWO: Ramaswamy Govindarajan, 26 Jan 90
Wing Commander: A K Prasad, 26 Jan 96
Wing Commander: Guttikonda Amar Prasad Babu, 26 Jan 04
Wing Commander Nuthalapati Koteswara Rao, 26 Jan 98
Wing Commander NK Rao :- was on posted strength of MOFTU AF from 12 June 1995 till his demise on 4 April 1996. He functioned as the Flight Commander of 'B' Squadron. During this period, Wg Cdr NK Rao flew 235 sorties / 126.15 hrs. He was a pilot, who was willing to undertake any mission with whole hearted enthusiasm. His personal involvement in the flying training contributed directly to the timely completion of the flying task of the squadron. Wg Cdr NK Rao was fatally injured in an air accident on 4 April 1996. He experienced engine failure oin a low level mission on MiG-21FL aircraft. He attempted relight, which was unsucessful. Subsequently, the ejection seat also malfunctioned, fatally injuring the pilot. Wg Cdr Rao made all attempts to save the aircraft. Despite his correct and prompt actions, his life was lost. For his distinguished service, devotion to duty and professional competance, the President is pleased to award 'Vayu Sena Medal' to Wg Cdr Rao Posthumously.
Gp Capt: Motilal Nalluri, Announced 26 Jan 01
Shaurya Chakra : The Shaurya Chakra is the third level award for gallantry away from the battlefield and by far the nearest equivalent of the Vir Chakra Award for Peacetime Unlike the Ashok and Kirti Chakra awards, One will find a significant number of NCOs, Civilians, Army and other Services Members who were either attached to the IAF at the time of the date of the awards or were recommended by the IAF for the award.
Flt Sgt: L Raghaviah
Wg Cdr: Chekuri Mohan Rao, 26 Jan 90
Cpl: Suresh Chintalapati, 15 Aug 01
Sqn Ldr: Tammineni Srinivasulu, 15 Aug 05
Ati Vishist Seva Medal :
Gp Capt Kanumilli Suryanarayana Rao
Major General Arikapudi Ravindra Kumar.
Major General Puttagunta Sivarama Krishna Choudhary
1) Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Chaudary:
The Kaviraju (As he is popularly known in Andhra Pradesh), a fearless freedom fighter, a great native poet and an uncompromising rationalist, was born in a farmer's family in village Angaluru, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, on the 15th January, 1887.His entire family comprised of literati and in his childhood, he wanted to learn Sanskrit, but was put off by the traditional pundits. Shri Ramaswamy's zeal and quest led him to the study of Sanskrit and to a very thorough understanding and critical study and analysis of the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Itihasas. He concluded that the decadence of Hindu society was due to misinterpretation of our great Indian texts and that there is no sanction for the caste system or for untouchability and that it is the vested and self interest of the privileged section of the society that has been keeping millions in ignorance, illiteracy, superstitious beliefs and degraded status. He took to intensive and extensive propagation of reform through his poetry, dramas, lengthy dissertations and extensive discourses.
He used his considerable literary talents to write beautifully in Telugu to lead people to rational thought. His works on. Bhagwad Gita, Soota Purana, Sambukavadha, Khooni, Rana Pratap and Kurukshetra Sangramam stirred the masses to rational thought and action. He saw that social reform and awakening of the masses were inextricably linked up with the freedom movement. His songs and Satakas inspired people to participate in Gandhiji's Satyagraha Movements. He demystified the marriage rituals by writing in Telugu Vivaha Vidhi and conducting the marriages in a simple, meaningful way and also preserving the solemnity and dignity that our ancients had built into the Hindu marriage. He studied in London and Dublin to become a Bar-at-law but gave up is lucrative practice to propagate social reform through his literary talents. As Chairman of Tenali Municipality, he put and end to all irrational and traditional practices and rituals like animal sacrifices and superstitious observances, unmindful of popularity, but upholding his beliefs and rational thought He died in 1943. The prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi paid tribute to him for his patriotic, reformist and literary contributions and the Government of Andhra Pradesh installed his statue as one of the Telugu greats, on the picturesque Tank Bund in Hyderabad.
2) Duggirala Balarama Krishnayya :
He was born in the year 1905 in the village Angaluru, Krishna district. He studied Talugu, Sanskrit, and Hindi literature. He was well versed in Bengali, Gujarati and Urdu. He studied for 3 years at Hindi Vidyapeeth, Allahabad, was arrested at Allahabad in 1921 for partcipating Black Flag Demonstration against the visit of Prince of Wales. Hw was detained from 10-09-42 to 9-12-44 in Vellore and Tanjaore jails during the "Quit India movement". He encouragesd widow marriages, and worked for the removal of untouchability. The Andhra Mahasabha under the presidentship of Sri.S.Radha Krishnana conferred the title "Bouddha Vangmaya Brahma" on him in 1927 for his illustrious work on "Buddism". He worked in the Kisaan Movement. He was Honorary President, Krishna District Congress Freedom Fighters Committee. 3) Raja Vasireddi Durga Sadasiveswara Prasad :
He was born on April 11, 1899 at Jayanthipuram, Nandigama taluq, Krishna district. His father Venkatadri Naidu was a Landlord (Zamindar). He was welll conversant with Telugu, Hindi and Sanskrit. He joined the Congress party in 1921, and started a Kahdi Production center at Jayanthipuram during the "Non co-operation Movement". . He also associated with Quit India Movemnet, and gave shelter to a number of refugees from the earstwhile Hyderabad state during 1947-48 "Join Indian Union Movement". He intensively worked for the prapagation of Khadi, Harijan Upliftment and Prohibition of Liquor. 4) Justice Avula Sambasiva Rao:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Arya Vysyas (Telugu: ఆర్య వైశ్యులు) or Komatis are a Telugu speaking Vysya (trading) caste from Andhra Pradesh. They are also found in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Orissa. The people of this caste are mainly into business and trading activities. Arya Vysyas are strict vegetarians . Orthodox Vysyas follow rituals prescribed in the Vasavi Puranamulu, a text written in the late medieval times (4). Sri Vasavi Kanyaka Parameswari Devi is the main Goddess or Kula Devatha of Arya Vysyas.
Arya Vysyas use the suffix Setty in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, and Chetty in Tamil Nadu. Some members of the community are also known to use the suffix Guptha. Arya Vysyas in Maharashtra are found in greater numbers in Marathwada and Vidarbha regions. They almost exclusively speak Marathi as their mother tongue and have adopted largely Maharashtrian customs. Their last names typically end in "war" like Raiwar, Gujalwar, Yadawar, Pattewar, Revanwar, Raiwar, Yerremwar, Gundawar, Pampatwar, Pokalwar, etc. But ancestors of such families have known to be speaking Telugu and still now there are some families residing in Telangana areas of Andhra Pradesh bordering with Maharashtra, who have such surnames, although they identify themselves as Telugus.
Origin of Vysyas
A large number of Vysyas are said to have originally lived and still live in large numbers on the banks of the Godavari River (7). One of the local names for it is Gomati or Gomti. So the people who lived on the banks are called as Gomati, later it become popular in Dravidian languages like Telugu as vysyas.
Arya Vysya etymology
Arya Vysyas, also known as Gavara Komatis (9), are one of the 3 subsects of the Komati caste, the other 2 being Kalinga Vysya and Thrivarnika. While Arya Vysyas are vegetarian, the Kalinga Vysyas and Thrivarnikas are non-vegetarians (8). Arya Vysyas are distributed throughout Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Kalinga Vysyas are mostly spread around Srikakulam and Vizianagaram districts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, whereas Thrivarnikas are small in number and spread in small pockets of Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Warangal districts.
According to Thurston (1975) Komati is derived from "go-mati" or possessor of cows and their main occupation was protecting cows (6) . The book Religion in Andhra: a survey of religious developments in Andhra from early times up to A.D. 1325, page 175 mentions that the merchant classes preferered Jainism for gaining social status and respectability, and the erstwhile vanijas (merchants) became Komatis or followers of the Gomatha cult in the medieval times.
Another book Social mobility in Medieval Andhra by BSL Hanumantha Rao, page 176 mentions an alternative etymology for the word Komati as a "derivation of the word from Gomatha (Gomateshwara), the great Jaina Saint, and it implies that they were followers of Gomatha cult or were originally Jains". The book Socio-cultural history of ancient and medieval Andhra, page 130, mentions that "The story of Vasavi, the caste goddess of the Vaisyas narrated in the Vaisya Purana appears to have definite Jain overtones".
The book Socio-cultural history of an Indian caste, by C. Dwarakanath Gupta, page 10, mentions that "the tradesmen from Gouda desa took to Jainism and adopted the Gomata cult. The word Gomata got distorted to Gomatlu, Komtulu. In Malayalam and Tamil, the word Komati is in use. The Jain Vysyas gave up Jainism and embraced Vedic religion during its revival".
Between 1921 to 1931, the Viceroy of Madras Presidency had implemented a commission which helped the people in their community to register their community with changes in the name if any. The South India Vaisya Association (1905) registered their community as Arya Vysyas (provide further details).
Sri Vasavi Kanyaka Parameshwari Devi Puranamu as written in Telugu
South India is the Treasure House of many temples. Among them Sri Vasavi Kanyaka Parameswari temple situated in Penugonda, a town in the West Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. The temple is a fascinating multi-colored (Gali Gopuram) seven storied tower with a beautiful architecture. This Penugonda Kshetram is considered as the ‘Kasi of Vysyas' and is a holy place for Vysyas.
Kusuma Sresti or Setty was the Setty king of Vysyas also known as Pedda Setty (Elder among Settys) whose territory was a Vassal state of Vengi desha, which was ruled by Vishnu Vardhana (Vimaladitya Maharajulu). His capital was Penugonda (Jestasailam) city for all the 18 paraganas during 10th and 11th century A.D. He and his wife Kusumamba were considered an ideal couple and led a peaceful domestic life. They worshiped Lord Siva (Nagareswara Swamy) as the part of their daily duties.
Though they had been married for many years, the couple did not have peace of mind as there was no successor to the kingdom. Their many prayers and sacrifices did not bear fruit and hence they were grief stricken. They approached their Kula guru (family Teacher) Bhaskar Acharya also a Komti who was well versed in shastras and by virtue of his profession was treated as a Komti Bramhana. He advised them to perform Puthra Kamesti Yaga, which Dasharatha had observed.
During the auspicious hour, the couple started the yaga. The Gods were pleased and sent prasadam (blessed fruit from god) through Yagneswara(fire God). They were told that they would beget children after eating prasadam. With devotion they ate the Prasadam and within a few days the signs of pregnancy was found with Kusumamba. She expressed unusual desires, which indicated that she would give birth to children who would fight for the welfare of all.
Birth of Vasavi Devi
During spring season, there was pleasure everywhere. Amidst this beauty, Kusumamba gave birth to twins, one male the other female on Friday the tenth of Vaisaka (Telugu month) at twilight during convergence of Uttara Nakshatra and Kanya (Virgo). The male child was named Virupaksha, and the female Vasavamba. During childhood, Virupaksha showed the features of becoming a powerful king, whereas in Vasavi, the inclination towards art & architecture, adoration music and philosophical approach were seen.
Under the guidance of Bhaskaracharya, Virupaksha learnt the Puranas, fencing, horse riding, martial arts, archery, statecraft etc.., which were essential to rule his Territory. Vasavi learnt fine arts and mastered philosophy and was proud to be an intelligent woman.
Vishnu Vardhana Raju
When Virupaksha attained proper age he married Rathnavathi, daughter of Aridhi setty of Aelur Town. The huge gathering thought that even Vasavi's marriage would one day also be observed with the same pomp and grandeur.
When King Vishnu Vardhana went on expedition to expand his empire, he visited Penugonda, where King Kusumasresty received him and took him in a procession and arranged a felicitation program in the colorful auditorium. After Manamathan (God of Romance) threw his sweet arrows on him, Vimaladitya (Vishnu Vardhana) spotted Vasavi among the crowd and fell madly in love with her. He felt he could not live without her and was determined to marry her. He sent a minister to enquire about her. The desire of Vishnuvardhana (Vimaladitya) was like a death blow to Kusumasresty. He was neither in a position to accept it nor to deny. The fact that the Emperor was already married, was much older, the difference in caste and the fact that he was not in a position to prevent this from occurring all caused extreme stress for Kusumasresty.
He discussed these issues with his closest family and friends and they unanimously decided to let Vasavi decide. Vasavi frankly expressed her desire to be a Virgin throughout her life and intended not to concentrate on worldy matters.
Kusumasetti sent a denial message to king Vishnuvardhana. The king was furious and sent a Battalion with orders to attack mercilessly and to get Vasavi for him. The brave Komti's of Penugonda by using the techniques of Sama, Dhana, Bheda and finally Danda, defeated Vishnuvardana's army.
At this crucial juncture, Kusumasresti called for Great Conference of the Chief of all the 18 cities and the leaders of all 714 Gotras in the presence of Komti Kula Guru Bhaskaracharya.
In the conference, there was difference of opinion. The Chiefs of 102 Gotras made a firm decision thought that "Those who are born must die and cowards die many times before their death but the valiant taste death but once. Even if the opponent is stronger, can't the spark burn a heap of straw? Hence, let us fight for a good cause. Whereas, the leaders of the other 612 gotras felt that the matrimonial alliance would be safer and more beneficial."
Bhaskar Acharya said: "We must safeguard our respect even at the cost of our lives". These words acted as a catalyst for Kusumasresti. Even though they formed a minority he was determined not to give his daughter Vasavi in marriage to the king. With this incident, the unity of the Komti's was broken. The Emperor, like an injured Cobra, took the lead of his huge army with strong determination to destroy his opponents. In Penugonda necessary arrangements were made with the supporters of the 102 Gotras to face the consequence.
Vasavi Devi's reaction
Vasavi, entered into scene and said: "Why should there be bloodshed among ourselves for the sake of a Girl? Why sacrifice the lives of soldiers for our selfish desire. It is better to give up the idea of war. Instead, let us rebel in a novel way. We can control war through non-violence and self-sacrifice. Only people with strong will power and moral strength can participate in this kind of self- sacrifice. Vasavi's new idea was delightful to her parents and they decided to act in accordance with Vasavi's directions.
As per the directions of Vasavi, at the holy place of Brahmakunda on the banks of Godavari, the royal servants arranged 103 Agnikundas (fire pits) in a special way. The whole city was observing that day as a festival day. Then Vasavi asked the couples of the 102 Gotras: "Will you plunge into this holy fire along with me?" Everyone of them whole heartedly gave their consent. They suspected Vasavi must be an incarnation of God and requested her to show her real nature or swarupa.
She smiled and revealed her true self, which had the glittering radiance surpassing the brightness of sun. She said: "I am the incarnation of Adiparashakthi." To safeguard the dignity of woman and to protect Dharma, to destroy Vishnu Vardhana and to reveal to the world the magnanimity of Komti's I come here in Kaliyuga. Like Sati Deva who was insulted entered into holy fire, I too plunge into the holy fire and enter the other world. Kusumasresty during last birth was a great Saint by name Samadhi as per his aspirations he could attain salvation along with the people of 102 Gotras. That is why I asked you all to undergo Athmam Balidhana." Vasavi advised the gathering about patriotism, honesty, social service, and tolerance etc.
Vishnu Vardhana's death
Devi disappeared as soon as the divine words came out of her mouth and people saw her in human form. Then all of them entered into holy fire after meditating upon their Gods.
Though Vishnuvardhana felt bad Omens, he marched ahead and reached the main entrance of Penugonda. Then his detectives reported what all had happened in the city. He could not bear the great shock and his heart shattered into pieces. He fell down vomiting blood and he was no more.
The self-sacrifice of Vasavi and the end of Vishnuvardhana was the talk of the town. People condemned the deeds of Vishnuvardhana and appreciated the epoch maker Vasavi and her non-violent principle (1).
Sri Vasavi Devi's legacy
The son of Vishnuvardhana, Raja Raja Narendra rushed to Penugonda and repented about the incident. Later on Virupaksha consoled him and said: "Brother, let us learn and formulate the present and future on the strong base of past. Vasavi had come to rescue of the people without giving room for great bloodshed. Her non-violence gave a good result", hence forth Komatis shall not fight or rule states but shall engage in the service and as well wishers of others including services like trade ,agriculture etc..,
Virupaksha visited many pilgrim centers like Kasi, Gaya and other under the guidance of komti kula guru Baskaracharya. To commemorate the pilgrimage they installed 101 lingas for each gotra in Penugonda. Then, Narendra installed a statue of Vasavi as a token of respect. From that day onwards all Komti's began performing poojas to her and is considered as Komatikula Devatha-Vasavi Kannika Parameswari.
Vasavi's life is worth remembering because of her faith in non-violence religious values and her defense of status of women. She became immortal as she has been mainly responsible for the propagation of reputation of Komatis throughout the world. Vasavi is an epitome for aryan women who sacrificed her life than to inter marry with the black skinned Dravidian kings of that time when vysyas moved south and hence the community of komatis who followed her have now rechristened themselves and their community as Arya Vysya's.Vasavi, who had rejected worldly pleasures, won the minds of Komatis and is the champion of peace and non-violence and is remembered by the faithful.
- Vasavi Penugonda Trust:responsible for developmental works and creation of a Khsetra in penugonda the only punya Kshetra for ARYA VYSYAS link provided below
- VYS - Vasavi Yujana Sangha
- YMVA - Young Men's Vysya Association: Responsible for organizing Community service activities on behalf of Vysyas.
- VLA - Vysya Ladies Association: Same as YMVA but organized by Vysya Women.
- VH - Vysya Hostel: A Boys Hostel for students from Vysya Community.
- Vysya Bhawans are organized by Vysyas at all important pilgrimage places
- AVOPA - Arya Vysya Officials and Professionals Association 
- Tamil Nadu Arya Vysya Maha Sabha, Chennai
- Andhra Pradesh Sri Vasavi Arya Vysya Maha Sabha, Hyderabad
- Sri Vasavi Arya Vysya Sangam,Sri Vasavi Arya Vysya Yuvagana Sangam,Vasavi Club every where in Hyderabad City and every in Andhra Pradesh and also at every priligrims we have Boarding and loadging facilities to arya vysya at low price and free of cost for poor in these arya vysya's.
- AVOGA - Arya Vysya Officials and Graduates Association , Tuni , East Goadavari (dist.)
- Arya Vysya BavanVasavi Bhavan road - Miryalguda-508207
- Kanyaka Parameshwari Temple Nalgonda Road - Miryalguda-508207, Nalgonda(dist.)
- Kanyaka Parameswari Satram Near 1 town Market - Eluru 534001, West Godavari(dist.)
- NRIVA (NRI VASAVI ASSOCIATION) based in USA - WWW.NRIVA.ORG
- Arya Vysya Yuvajana Sangham, ITown Area, Viskhapatnam-530001, Andhrapradesh, India
- Arya Vysya Sangham, kushaiguda, rangareddy dist,hyderabad- 500062
- Vasavi clubs, All over andhrapradesh.
- Anna Nagar Arya Vysya Sangam, Chennai 600 040
- Coimbatore Arya Vysya Samajam, Coimbatore 641 001, Tamil Nadu, India
- KAVYA - Hyderabad City Kalinga Vysya Association, Andhrapradesh
- Arya Vysya Samajam, Puducherry 605001
- Vasavi Soceity Inc in USA, www.vasavisociety.org
- VysyaClub.com, First eClub for vysya community
- Potti Sriramulu - "Amara Jeevi" - a person who lives for ever, achieving the state of Andhra Pradesh he was a gandhian congress men who fasted till his last to free lingustic groups from Tamil rule during the madras presidency and became an architect of linguistic organisation of states freeing telugus, kannadigas, malayalam, marathis etc..,
- Konijeti Rosaiah- Honourable Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, Eminent Politician, Excellent Orator.
- Justice SD Gundewar : Justice of the Bombay High Court who led the Gundewar Commission to investigate the Bombay riots in 1992-93.
- Vilas Muttemwar : Minister of States,Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha representative from Nagpur.
- Chegu Seshavatharam (1901-2000) - B.E.,C.E.(Hons.), F.I.E.(Ind), F.I.V., Chief Engineer P.W.D. & General - Reviewed establishment and proposals for increase of establishment in Andhra Pradesh i.e., before and after formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh.
- Ramesh Gelli Founder and chairperson of the erstwhile and now defunct Global Trust Bank head quartered at Bangalore and merged with Oriental Bank of Commerce.
- Kolagatla Veerabhadra Swamy - Former MLA from Vizianagaram, Government of Andhra Pradesh
- Grandhi Mallikarjuna Rao - Chairman, GMR Group, First Telugu Person in Forbes Magazine
- D.H. Shankaramurthy- BJP leader and deputy chairman, Karnataka Planning Board
- S. N. Krishnaiah Setty - MLA from Malur and former Housing & Muzrai Minister, Government of Karnataka
- H.P. Manjunath- MLA from Hunsur
- Mutta Gopalakrishna - Former MLA(INC) from Kakinada,AP
- Sidda Ragava Rao - MLC from Ongole,AP
- Bangaru Usharani - MLA(INC) from Palakollu (Defeated Chiranjeevi (PRP Leader))
- Madhusudan Gupta - MLA(INC)from Guntakal
- TG Venkatesh - MLA(INC)from Kurnool
- Vellampalli Srinivas - MLA(PRP)from Vijayawada East
- Anna Rambabu - MLA(PRP)from Giddalur
- Sriram RajGopal (Tataiah) - MLA(TDP)from Jaggaiah pet
- CH Ramakotaiah - MLA(TDP)from Nuziveedu
- Vilas Muttemwar (orig. Muthyamwar)- MP (INC)is minister of state (independent charge) of Ministry of New and Renewable Energy of India. He is MP from Nagpur, Maharashtra.
- Sudhir Mungantiwar - MLA (BJP) from Chandrapur Maharashtra
- Madan Yerawar - MLA (BJP) from yavatmal Maharashtra
- Anna RamBabu - MLA (PRP) From Gidaloor , Andra Pradesh.
- Hon. Sri. Rosiah, CM of Andhra Pradesh from Sept2009
- Dr.Anant Labhsetwar, First person from India to own a Bank in the USA
- Bhojakumar s. Konanur Founder of Yipkon Corporation ( Sold to System House), Yipkon Business System in USA,Enterprenuer,Philanthropist.
(4) Religion and public culture: encounters and identities in modern South India, by John Jeya Paul and Keith E. Yandell, page 35.
(5) Religion and public culture: encounters and identities in modern South India, by John Jeya Paul and Keith E. Yandell, page 42.
(6) Socio-cultural history of an Indian caste, By C. Dwarakanath Gupta, page 9.
(7) Socio-cultural history of an Indian caste, By C. Dwarakanath Gupta, page 10.
(8) Age at Menarche in Three Caste Populations of Andhra Pradesh. http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/T-Anth/Anth-08-0-000-000-2006-Web/Anth-08-1-001-074-2006-Abst-PDF/Anth-08-1-059-060-2006-231-Lakshmi-N/Anth-08-1-059-060-2006-231-Lakshmi-N-Text.pdf
(9) Population structure and genetic differentiation among the substructured Vysya caste population in comparison to the other populations of Andhra Pradesh, India. Annals of Human Biology 2002, Vol. 29, No. 5, Pages 538-549.
VasaviMail.comhttp://www.vasavimail.com : Free E mail service in the name of Goddess Vasavi, Kuladevatha of Arya Vysyas
Vysyamala.comhttp://www.vysyamala.com/ : Free Matrimonial service exclusive for Arya Vysya Community