Essay About Forest Conservation Articles

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Essay on Forest Conservation

Essay Contents:

  1. Essay on the Introduction to Forest Conservation
  2. Essay on the Forest Conservation Movements in India
  3. Essay on the Methods of Forest Conservation
  4. Essay on National Forestry Action Programme for Forest Conservation
  5. Essay on Forest Conservation Initiatives Taken up by Indian Government


Essay # 1. Introduction to Forest Conservation:

Forests may provide a diversity of ecosystem services including recycling carbon dioxide into oxygen, acting as a carbon sink, aiding in regulating climate, purify water, mitigating natural hazards such as floods, and serving as a genetic reserve. Forests also serve as a source of lumber and as recreational areas.

Under the growing pressure of population in the developing countries and over industrialization, urbanization and consumerism in the developed countries, there is large scale deforestation in the tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world.

Deforestation:

Factors Responsible for Deforestation:

(i) Rapid growth of population in the developing countries.

(ii) Extension of agricultural and grazing lands.

(iii) Rising demand for lumber, timber, paper, pulp, fuel-wood and charcoal, and other forest products.

(iv) Industrialization, urbanization and consumerism in the developed and developing countries.

(v) Demand of raw material for the forest-based and agro-based industries.

(vi) Demand of land for infrastructural (roads, highways, railways, airways, irrigation, electricity and telecommunication services) facilities and civic amenities.

(vii) Construction of multi-purpose dams all over the world.

(viii) Practice of shifting cultivation in the humid-tropical regions of the world.

(ix) Change in food habits

(x) High rate of poverty in the third world countries. It is said that poverty directly or indirectly leads to deforestation.

(xi) Forest fires (natural and manmade)

(xii) Acid rains

(xiii) Delayed administrative decision, and less effective implementation of forest laws, especially in the developing countries.

Consequences of Deforestation:

(i) Soil erosion,

(ii) Floods,

(iii) Desertification,

(iv) Loss of biodiversity,

(v) Decrease in forest products like fruits, nuts, medicinal plants, wood and timber,

(vi) Drying up of springs in the mountains,

(vii) Alteration in the rate of albedo

(viii) Spread of certain diseases because of global warming

(ix) Aesthetic loss

(x) Climatic change.


Essay # 2. Forest Conservation Movements in India:

Chipko Movement:

a. The Chipko movement or Chipko Andolan was primarily a forest conservation movement in India that began in 1973 and went on to become a rallying point for many future environmental contrast and movements all over the world; it created a precedent for non-violent protest started in India.

b. The movement occurred at a time when there was hardly any environmental movement in the developing world, and its success meant that the world immediately took notice of this non-violent movement, which was to inspire in time many such eco-groups by helping to slow down the rapid deforestation, expose vested interests, increase ecological awareness, and demonstrate the viability of people power.

Appiko Movement:

a. It was a revolutionary movement based on environmental conservation in India.

b. The Chipko movement (Hug the Trees Movement) in Uttarakhand in the Himalayas inspired the villagers of the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka State in southern India to launch a similar movement to save their forests.

c. Lead by Panduranga Hegde, on September 1983, men, women and children of Salkani “hugged the trees” in Kalase forest. (The local term for “hugging” in Kannada is appiko.) Appiko movement gave birth to a new awareness all over southern India.


Essay # 3. Methods of Forest Conservation:

i. Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees:

One of the main reasons of deforestation is commercial felling of trees. Although trees are considered as perennial resource, when exploited on a very large scale, their revival cannot be possible.

Adopting methods to regulate cutting:

(i) Clear cutting,

(ii) Selective cutting,

(iii) Shelter woodcutting.

The clear cutting method is useful for those areas where the same types of trees are available over a large area. In such case, trees of same age group are cut down in a selected area and then marked for replantation. But in selective cutting only mature trees are selected for cutting. This process is to be followed in rotation.

Shelter woodcutting is where first of all useless trees are cut down followed by medium and best quality timber trees.

In regulated cutting only one-tenth of the forest area is selected for use and rotational system is always followed for their protection. This technique is called the ‘sustained yield’ method.

ii. Control over Forest Fire:

Destruction or loss of forest by fire is fairly common; because trees are highly exposed to fire and once started it becomes difficult to control.

Sometimes, the fire starts by natural process, i.e., by lightning or by friction between trees during speedy winds, while in most cases it is also by man either intentionally or unintentionally. In order to save forests from fire, it is necessary to adopt latest techniques of firefighting and trained staff.

Some of the fire suppression techniques are to develop three metre wide fire lanes around the periphery of the fire, back fires, arrangement of water spray, fire retardant chemicals should be sprayed from back tank and if possible by helicopters.

iii. Reforestation and Afforestation:

The sustained yield concept dictates that whenever timber is removed, either by block cutting or by selective cutting, the denuded area must be reforested. Similarly, any forested land, which has been destroyed by fire or mining activities, should be reforested. In rugged terrain aerial seeding is the method of choice.

Besides all this, fresh afforestation programmes should be started. This would increase the forest cover as well help in making up the eco-balance. Selection of trees should be done according to local geographical conditions

iv. Forest Clearance for Agricultural & Habitation Purposes:

For the development of villages, towns and cities, forestlands have been cleared and this process continues to this day causing loss of forest cover. This should be checked and green belts around cities be developed.

Most of the present-day agricultural land was once forested and then cleared for the use of agriculture; it has reached a stage where further clearance will be dangerous for the entire ecosystem.

According to an estimate, about 40 million sq. km of land is used for shifting cultivation by 200 million tribals of the world.

v. Protection of Forests:

Apart from commercial cutting, unorganized grazing is also one of the reasons. There are several forest diseases resulting from parasitic fungi, rusts, mistletoes, viruses and nematodes, which cause the destruction of trees.

The forests should be protected either by use of chemical spray, antibiotics or by development of disease resistant strains of trees.

vi. Proper Utilization of Forest and Forests Products:

Generally, trees are cut for logs and the rest, including stump, limbs, branches and foliage, etc., is left out as worthless debris. Further waste occurs at the sawmills. Therefore there is a need to utilize this waste material.

Similarly, forests can be used or developed as tourist centres. The concepts of ‘national park’ and ‘game sanctuary’ have now become popular. This is a good method of forest conservation.

vii. Role of Government and Forest Management:

Implementation of the policies in an effective manner is the need of the hour.

(i) Pass acts for the conservation of forests,

(ii) Survey of the forest resources,

(iii) Categorization of forest areas and proper delimitation of reserved forest areas,

(iv) Find out the areas where reforestation can be done,

(v) Regulate the commercial use of forest products,

(vi) Protect forest from fire, mining and other natural calamities,

(vii) Develop national parks,

(viii) Encourage forests developmental activities like social forestry, agro-forestry, etc., and

(ix) Prepare master plans, both for long-term and short-term period, etc.

(x) Administrative setting for forest management,

(xi) Training programmes for persons engaged in forest conservation activities,

(xii) Development of new techniques for the conservation of forests,

(xiii) Research for efficient use and conservation of forest, and

In brief, conservation of forest resources can be done by cooperative efforts of the government, non-government organizations and the public through a proper management system.  


Essay # 4. National Forestry Action Programme for Forest Conservation:

The NFAP identified five interrelated basic issues confronting forestry development in India which form the basis of the following programme structures.

1. Protect Existing Forests Resources:

It has three main sub-programmes:

(i) Forest protection,

(ii) Soil and water conservation,

(iii) Protected areas and biodiversity conservation.

These include the works of forest survey, demarcation and mapping, inventory, biodiversity conservation, protected area management, protection against poaching, encroachment and fire, and other related issues.

2. Improve Forest Productivity:

It has four main sub-programmes:

(i) Rehabilitation of degraded forests,

(ii) Research and technology development,

(iii) Development of Non-wood forest products (NWFP’s)

(iv) Assisting private initiatives with community participation.

These mainly involve research, improvement in technology, enrichment planting, soil and water conservation, regeneration, rehabilitation, and afforestation, mainly in existing forests.

3. Reduce Total Demand:

It has three main sub-programmes for the efficient use of:

(i) Fuel wood and fodder,

(ii) Timber

(iii) NWFPs.

This includes programme for reduction of demand placed on forests through the technology of preservation, seasoning, substitutions, and other measures for the efficient utilization of forest products and also through biomass plantations.

4. Strengthen Policy and Institutional Framework:

It has three main sub-programmes:

(i) Central forestry administration,

(ii) Central forestry institutions,

(iii) State forestry administration and institutions.

These include the development of infrastructure such as buildings, communications, etc. and strengthening of staff including HRD. This issue also covers all aspects of capacity- building, forest policy and legislation, public forest administration and organizational structure, research, planning and budgeting.

5. Expand Forest Area:

It has two main sub-programmes:

(i) Tree plantation on forest and non-forest lands,

(ii) People’s participation in plantations and its protection.

This issue includes the extension of forestry programme in all kind of wastelands and marginal farmlands. It also includes the programme of certain of plantation forests through wasteland reclamation, afforestation, and promotion of agroforestry.


Essay # 5. Forest Conservation Initiatives Taken up by Indian Government:

Forestry is a concurrent subject in the Indian Constitution, being under the purview of both the central and state governments.

The first forest policy of India was enunciated in 1894 which focused on commercial exploitation of timber and gave importance to permanent cultivation. This was revised in 1952 and a new forest policy recognized the protective role of forests and proposed that one-third of the land area of the country be retained under forest and tree cover.

It was only in 1988 that a shift in policy occurred when the Government of India adopted the National Forest Policy (NFP), 1988, recognizing the rights of the people over forests.

The Government of India in 1992 with support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), prepared the National Forestry Action Programme (NFAP). It is a comprehensive work plan for sustainable development of forests in India.

Biological Diversity Act, 2002 for Forest Conservation:

The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, aims to protect the biological resources of the country, and thus, addresses forest ecology in its totality.

73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution:

The 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution, 1992, makes it mandatory for all states to decentralize governance through a three-tier structure, viz. the state, district, and local bodies (called Panchayati Raj institutions).

Among the 29 functions recommended for decentralization, three relate to forestry, i.e. Social forestry, Fuel Wood Plantations, and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP). Thus, the legal basis for effective people’s participation in forest protection and forest management is now available.

The Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education (ICFRE):

In order to strengthen the system of forestry research in India, the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), an autonomous umbrella organization, was established in 1986.

Its functions include aid to and promoting forestry research and its application, acting as a clearing house for research results and information, dissemination of technology, etc.

Research Institutions apart from ICFRE:

a. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi

b. Madhya Pradesh Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

c. Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, Bangalore

Institutions dealing with Forest Conservation in India:

a. Indian Institute of-Forest Management, Bhopal

b. Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy, Dehradun

c. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun

d. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun

e. State Forest Service Colleges, Dehradun, Burnihat, and Coimbatore

f. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata

g. Zoological Survey of India, Dehradun

h. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun

i. National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi

j. GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Almora

k. Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Coimbatore

l. Central Zoo Authority, New Delhi

m. Centre for Ecological Research and Training, Bangalore


Essay on Wildlife Conservation!

Like forests, wildlife is also a national resource, which not only helps in maintaining the ecological balance but is also beneficial from economic, recreational and aesthetic points of view. There was a time when human interference was minimum the number of wild animals was quite high and there was no problem of their protection or conservation. But, with the expansion of agriculture, settlement, industrial and other developmental activities and mainly due to greed of man, the number of wild animals gradually became lesser and lesser. With the result that several species of animals have become extinct and several, others are on the verge of being so.

Deforestation is also one of the main reasons for the loss of wildlife. Mass killings of wild animals for their meat, bones, fur, teeth, hair, skin, etc., are going on throughout the world. Therefore, the need for wildlife conservation has now become a necessity.

Population growth, expansion of agriculture and livestock raising building of cities and roads, and pollution are among the many pressures on the natural habitat of wildlife. Along with illegal hunting, habitat reduction and its degradation has threatened the bio-diversity of the regions where these are rampant.

Preservation of wildlife does not mean a blanket protection to all faunal and floral species; rather, it implies a proper, judicious control over the multiplication of plants and animals, which interact together to provide a proper environment to man whose very existence is in peril today.

Due to the irrational use of natural and biotic resources of the earth in the past, most of the wildlife has been destroyed beyond retrieval. It is our urgent duty to protect the natural splendor of ecosystems and to evolve a system of co-existence with every living creature upon the earth.

Although must countries of the world are very particular regarding conservation of wildlife, the number of wild animals is reducing day by day. World Wild Life Fund is the international agency, which is doing commendable work in promoting the protection of wildlife. There are national agencies also engaged in the conservation of wildlife.

Some steps in the direction of wildlife conservation could be as follows:

(i) To survey and collect all the information about wildlife, especially, their number and growth.

(ii) To protect habitat by protecting forests.

(iii) To delimit the areas of their natural habitat.

(iv) To protect wildlife from pollution and from natural hazards.

(v) To impose complete restriction on hunting and capturing of wildlife.

(vi) To impose restrictions on export and import of wildlife products and severe punishment to be given to those who indulge in this activity.

(vii) To develop game sanctuaries for specific wild animals or for general world life.

(viii) To make special arrangements to protect those species whose number is very limited.

(ix) To develop general awareness at national and international level regarding protection of wildlife.

(x) To adopt a system of wildlife management through trained personnel.

India is a good example where several steps have been taken for wildlife conservation. It is a country of varied wildlife, where more than 500 types of wild animals, 2,100 types of birds and about 20,000 types of reptiles and fishes have been found. According to an estimate, in India, about 200 species of wild animals and birds have already become extinct and another 2,500 are on the verge of extinction.

Some of them are black buck, chinkara, wolf, swamp deer, nilgai, Indian gazelle, antelope, tiger, rhinoceros, gir lion, crocodile, flamingo, pelican, bustard, white crane, grey heron, mountain quail, etc. In India, the government and NGOs are taking keen interest in the protection of wildlife. The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 has several provisions for the conservation of wildlife.

As many as 165 game sanctuaries and 21 national parks have been developed to protect the natural habitat and wild animals. Apart from this, a Wild Life Conservation Week is also celebrated from 7th of October every year. But still there is a long way to go in this direction.

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